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Negev (1960)

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 34] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 34 [ܕܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ ܘܰܐܪܒܥܐ]: ܡܰܪܕܘܬ̥ܐ ܕܦܳܬ̥ܘܪܐ

2018-07-04

mærdūṯā = “training, discipline” — pāṯūrā = “table, banquet” (Mosul, NY pāṯórā, e.g. ܠܲܚܡܵܐ ܕܦܵܬ݂ܘܿܪܹܗ ܕܡܵܪܝܵܐ (Mt12:4)): perh. related to Akk. paššūru = “table” (AIOA81)

ṭækkes D = “to order, to set in order”: mṭækkæs mṭæk(kə)sā = Pass. part. “orderly, moderate”

ܛܰܠܝܐ ܛܳܒܐ ܘܒܰܪ ܡܰܪܕܘܬ̥ܐ: ܟܰܕ ܝܳܬ̥ܶܒ ܥܰܠ ܦܳܬ̥ܘܪܐ، ܐܶܢ ܒܥܶܕܳܢ ܥܪܳܝܬܐ ܐܰܘ ܫܳܪܘܬ̥ܐ ܐܰܘ ܚܫܳܡܝܬ̥ܐ،
As for a good boy and a man of discipline (=a disciplined man), whether it be in the time of breakfast or lunch or supper,
ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܢܰܟ̥ܦܐ ܢܶܗܘܶܐ ܘܰܡܛܰܟܣܐ ܒܡܰܘܬܒܶܗ.
it is suitable that he should be a modest {næḵpā} and self-controlled [person] in his seat {mäwt(ə)ḇè}.

2018-07-05

ܘܰܩܕܳܡ ܕܰܢܫܰܪܶܐ ܒܡܶܐܟ̥ܠܐ، ܢܺܐܡܰܪ: ܒܫܶܡ ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܕܙܳܐܶܢ ܟܽܠ.
And before he starts {šærrī b-} [his] meal, he will say: “In the name of God, who feeds all.”

ܡܰܠܟܘܬܗ ܓܝܪ ܕܐܠܗܐ܉ ܠܐ ܗ̱ܘܬ ܡܶܐܟܠܐ ܘܡܰܫܬܝܐ܇ (Ro14:17) — οὐ γάρ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ βρῶσις καὶ πόσις (the present ʾestin in Greek was translated as perfect wāṯ in Syriac) — Such a Perfect, expressing the result of a prior occurrence, has often for us the appearance of a Present: thus ܗܘܳܐ “has become” γέγονε often = “is” (but also “was”); ܠܴܐ ܗܘܳܐ “is not” (N §256)

2018-07-06

pækkā = “a blow; the jaw, cheek” [here, used as “a bite”] — lʕes (e/a OR a/a #1) = “to chew, to take food” — blæʕ = “to swallow up” — ʾäwšeṭ (yšṭ C) = “to stretch out” — yæwnā = “greedy”

ܩܕܳܡ ܕܰܠܚܰܕ ܦܰܟܐ ܢܶܠܥܰܣ ܛܳܒܳܐܝܺܬ̥ ܘܢܶܒܠܰܥ:
Before [he takes] another bite, he should chew well and swallow [the current morsel].
ܠܐ ܢܰܘܫܶܛ ܐܝܕܶܗ ܠܦܰܟܐ ܐ̱ܚܪܺܢܐ، ܐܰܝܟ ܛܰܠܝܐ ܝܰܥܢܐ.
He should not stretch out his hand for another bite, like a greedy boy [would do].

#1 e/a in P-NT (2x): ܠܐ ܠܥܶܣ ܡܕܡ ܒܗܳܢܘܢ ܝܘܡ̈ܬܐ (Lk4:2) — ܠܥܶܣ ܥܰܡܗܘܢ (Ac11:3)

2018-07-08

nep̄uḥ = nəp̄uḥ (N §177C), Impf. of puḥ = “to blow” + b- — buššālā = “stew” v.n.D. from bæššel = “to cook” (N §117: type quṭṭālā from D) — sæybær = “to bear, endure; to wait”: Paiʿel of sbr = “to think” (N §181, (8); Thackston §20.5, (9)) — qær (√qrr) = “to become cold”: Impf. neqqær

ܘܠܐ ܢܶܦܘܚ (ܢܦܽܘܚ) ܒܒܽܘܫܳܠܐ ܕܫܰܚܝ̣ܢ، ܐܶܠܐ ܢܣܰܝܒܰܪ ܩܰܠܝܠ ܥܕܰܡܐ ܕܢܶܩܰܪ.
And he will not blow the soup that is hot {šæhhīn}, but he will wait a little while until it becomes cold.

ܥܕܲܡܵܐ ܠܐܸܡܲܬ݂ܝ ܐܸܗܘܹܐ ܠܘܵܬ݂ܟ݂ܘܿܢ: ܘܲܥܕܲܡܵܐ ܠܐܸܡܲܬ݂ܝ ܐܹܣܲܝܒܲܪܟ݂ܘܿܢ: (Mt17:17) — ES ʾèsæybær (=ʾessæybær) — ἕως πότε ἔσομαι μεθ' ὑμῶν; ἕως πότε ἀνέξομαι ὑμῶν;ἀνέχω = “hold up”; ἀνέχομαι = “hold oneself up, bear up” (sometimes +gen. as in NT, though in general +acc.)

2018-07-09

mlé (G p.p. of mly; possibly in the construct state) + noun = “filled with, full of”: e.g. ܟܲܕ ܡܠܸܐ ܪܘܼܚܵܐ ܕܩܘܼܕ݂ܫܵܐ ܗ̣ܦܲܟ = “while filled with the Holy Spirit, he returned” (Lk4:1) — ܦܘܼܡܗܘܿܢ ܡܠܸܐ ܠܵܘܛܬ݂ܵܐ = “their mouth is full of cursing” (Ro3:14) {läwṭəṯā? possibly *läwttā (?) or *läwṯṯā (??)}; ܠܵܘܛܬ݂ܵܐ ܡܠܸܐ ܦܘܼܡܹܗ (Ps10:7)

mānäw(hy) = “his clothes” (mānā)

ܘܠܐ ܢܡܰܠܶܠ ܟܰܕ ܦܘܡܶܗ ܡܠܶܐ ܡܶܐܟ̥ܠܐ، ܕܠܐ ܢܶܦܶܠ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܥܰܠ ܡܳܐܢܰܘ̈ܗ̱ܝ̱.
And he will not speak when his mouth is full of food lest something (should) fall on his clothes.

2018-07-10

grūmā = “bone, kernel, fruit pit” — qlāp̄tā, pl. qlāp̄è (like ʕenbəṯā, ʕenḇè) = “bark, (fish) scale, shell, peel” ܘܒܰܪ ܫܳܥܬܹܗ ܢܦܰܠ ܡܢ ܥܝ̈ܢܘܗ̱ܝ ܡܕܡ ܕܕܳܡܹܐ ܠܰܩ̈ܠܳܦܹܐ܉ ܘܶܐܬܦܰܬܰܚ ܥܝ̈ܢܘܗ̱ܝ. (Ac9:18) {dmy = “to be like”} — ʾīṯ b- = typically “the subject has X in Y,” but sometimes “the subject exists in X,” as in ܐܲܝܠܹܝܢ ܕܐܝܼܬ݂ ܒܐܵܢܛܝܘܿܟ݂ܝ = “those who are in Antioch” (Ac15:23)

ܘܟܰܕ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܕܐܺܝܬ̥ ܒܗܘܢ ܓܪ̈ܘܡܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܐܶܓܳܨ̈ܐ، ܐܰܘ ܩܠܳܦ̈ܐ ܐܰܝܟ ܡܘܙ̈ܐ،
And when he eats fruits that have stones in them, like pears, or skins, like bananas,
ܠܐ ܢܣܝܡ ܠܰܓܪ̈ܘܡܐ ܘܰܩܠܳܦ̈ܐ ܥܰܡ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܕܐܺܝܬ̥ ܒܡܳܐܢ̈ܐ.
he will not put the [removed] stones and skins with fruits that are in vessels (pots/platters/etc).

2018-07-11

ܒܪܰܡ ܥܰܠ ܓܰܒܐ ܕܦܳܬ̥ܘܪܐ ܐܰܘ ܒܡܳܐܢܐ ܐ̱ܚܪܺܢܐ ܢܣܝܡ ܐܶܢܘܢ.
But on the side of the table or into another vessel, he will put them.

ܥܠ ܓܒܐ ܕ does not occur in P-NT, perhaps because more commonly one talks about “one side = an unspecific side” rather than “the side,” or perhaps simply because ܥܠ ܓܶܢ̱ܒ̥ (abs./const. N §99) is idiomatic: e.g. ܐܸܬܐ ܥܠ ܓܹܢ̱ܒ̥ ܝܡܐ ܕܰܓܠܝܠܐ (Mt15:29). There is one example of ܡܢ ܓܒܐ ܕ, where the context is specifically “the right side of the ship”: ܐ̇ܡܪ ܠܗܘܢ. ܐܰܪܡܵܘ ܡܨܝܕܬ̊ܟܘܢ ܡܢ ܓܒܐ ܕܝܰܡܝܢܐ ܕܰܣܦܝܢ̱ܬܐ܂ (Jn21:6) {mṣīttā (N §26B), sp̄īttā (N §28)} — Arabic جَنْب and جانِب = “side” still have the N. — ገቦ (gäbbō)

2018-07-12

ʾäwdī = C “to thank”

ܘܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܡܶܐܟ̥ܠܐ، ܢܰܘܕܶܐ ܠܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܘܰܢܨܰܠܶܐ ܘܢܺܐܡܰܪ:
And after the meal, he will thank to God, and will pray and say:

ܘܐ̣ܙܠ ܬܘܒ܁ ܨܰܠܝ܂ ܘܗ̣ܝ ܡܠܬܐ ܐ̣ܡܪ. (Mk14:39⁎) {hī melṯā = “this (very same) word” N §227: τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον εἰπών}

ܣ̣ܠܸܩ ܫܸܡܥܘܢ ܠܸܐܓܵܪܐ܁ ܕܲܢܨܲܠܸܐ ܒܫܸܬ ܫܵܥܝ̈ܢ. (Ac10:9) {ʾeggārā = “roof”} — at least in P-NY, the Impf. (*nṣælléy) is written nṣællé, not nṣællè.

2018-07-14

šuḇḥā = “praise, glory”: سَبْح and ስብሐት (sĕbḥăt) LLA357 — burkəṯā, pl. burkāṯā = “blessing”

ܫܘܒܚܐ ܠܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܥܰܠ ܋ܛܰܒ̈ܳܬ̥ܶܗ܌ ܍ܛܳܒ̈ܳܬ̥ܶܗ܌، ܫܘܒܚܐ ܠܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܥܰܠ ܒܘܪ̈ܟܳܬܶܗ،
“Glory to God on His good things (on the Good of His), glory to God on His blessing,”

In Aramaic generally, the feminine adjective ܛܳܒܬ̥ܐ and its plural ܛܳܒ̈ܳܬܳܐ may be used as nouns. In Syriac, however, only the plural form is used as a noun (CAL). ܘܰܐ̱ܚܪܹܢܐ ܢ̣ܦܠ ܒܰܐܪܥܐ ܛܳܒܬ̥ܐ܉ ܘܝܰܗ̱ܒ ܦܐܪ̈ܐ. ܐܝܬ ܕܰܡܐܳܐ܁ ܘܐܝܬ ܕܶܫܬܝܢ. ܘܐܝܬ ܕܰܬܠܬܝܢ. (Mt13:8⁎) {ʾīṯ d = “est, qui” or “sunt, qui” N §303} — ܓܰܒܪܐ ܛܳܒܐ܂ ܡܢ ܣܝ̈ܡܳܬܳܐ ܛܳܒ̈ܳܬܳܐ ܡܰܦܸܩ ܛܒ̈ܬܐ. ܘܓܒܪܐ ܒܝܫܐ܂ ܡܢ ܣܝ̈ܡܬܐ ܒܝ̈ܫܳܬܳܐ ܡܦܩ ܒܝ̈ܫܬܐ܀ (Mt12:35⁎) {sīmṯā sg. (soft T: N §23E [but bīštā with hard T: ibid.]) = θησαυρός = “store, treasure, treasury”; *mænpeq C}

2018-07-19

ܒܗ ܕܝܢ ܒܒܝܬܐ ܗܘܵܘ܉ ܟܕ ܠܳܥܣܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܘܫܳܬܹܝܢ ܡܢ ܕܝܠܗܘܢ. = “Be in that house, while chewing {lʕs} and drinking [things] from what is theirs.” (Lk10:7)

ܫܘܒܚܐ ܠܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܕܡܶܢ ܕܝܠܶܗ ܚܳܐܶܝܢܰܢ.
“Glory to God, by whose things (grace) we live.”
ܠܶܗ ܫܘܒܚܐ ܠܥܳܠܡܝܢ ܀
“To Him, Glory forever and ever.”

ܚܳܐܹܝܢ is also written ܚܳܝܶܝܢ (1Pet3:21 UK). The fem. sg. is ܚܳܝܳܐ with only one Y (N §183, (7)). ܐ̇ܡܪܐ ܗܘܬ ܓܝܪ܉ ܕܳܐܦܸܢ ܠܰܠܒܘܫܗ ܩ̇ܪܒܐ ܐܢܐ܂ ܚܳܝܳܐ ܐܢܐ܇ = “For she was saying: ‘If I just touch his clothes, I am (will be) living.’” (Mk5:28⁎)

2018-07-20

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܢܶܬܶܒ ܐ̱ܢܳܫ ܥܰܠ ܦܳܬ̥ܘܪܐ؟
In what manner should one sit at a table?
ܙ̇ܕܩ ܕܢܰܟܦܐ ܢܶܗܘܶܐ ܘܰܡܛܰܟܣܐ.
He should be [behaving as] a modest and orderly person.

ʾæykæn(ā) (N §155C, LS2, P-UK/NY): vocalized by CAL/LS3 as ʾaykān(ā); Muraoka §14 says: ʾaykannā, less commonly ʾaykan: ܐܰܝܟܰܢ ܠܐ ܐܶܣܬܰܟܰܠܬܘܢ = “how (why) do you not understand?” (Mt16:11) {skl D “to teach, to signify”; Dt “to understand”} — ܐܰܢܟܰܢܐ ܐ̇ܡܪ ܐܢܬ ܠܰܐܚܘܟ = “how do you (can you) say to your brother?” (Mt7:4) — ܐܝܟܢܐ ܗܳܟܹܝܠ ܩ̇ܝܡܐ ܡܰܠܟܘܬܗ = “how, then, does his kingdom stand?” (Mt12:26)

ܗܰܒ ܠܢ ܕܚܰܕ ܢܶܬܶܒ ܡܢ ܝܰܡܝܢܟ = “Grant to us so that one [of us] may sit on your right side.” (Mk10:37)

2018-07-21

2 ܡܳܢܐ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܢܺܐܡܰܪ ܩܕܳܡ ܡܶܐܟ̥ܠܐ؟
What should he say before a meal?
ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܢܐܡܪ: ܒܫܶܡ ܐܰܠܳܗܐ ܕܙ̇ܐܢ ܟܠ.
He should say: “In the name of God, who feeds all.”

אֲנָא אֵיזוּן יָתְכוֹן = “I will feed you guys” (TgO Gn50:21) — in this text from CAL, the Impf. of zwn is written as if Geminate (*ʾez(z)un), somewhat like ES ʾèzun. Usually, however, א can take šəwā in Jewish Aramaic (Lambdin 59, h), as in אֿק֨ום (fake Babylonian), that is אְקוּם or אֲקוּם. Indeed, text from Mechon-Mamre is אֲנָא אֲזוּן יָתְכוֹן.

2018-07-23

nqep̄ = “to stick to”: ʾæqqep̄ C = “to bring … near; to begin to do; to begin (Ac10:37)”: ܐܰܩܶܦܘ ܠܗܘܢ ܐ̱ܢܳܫܐ ܒ̥ܝ̈ܫܐ ܡܢ ܫ̈ܘܩܐ = “they gathered, for themselves, evil people from the souks” (Ac17:5) {nāšā (sg. emph.) = “people” N §146}

pæyā = “beautiful, fitting, becoming”

3 ܠܡܘܢ ܠܐ ܦܰܐܝܳܐ ܕܢܰܩܶܦ ܦܰܟܐ ܠܐܰܚܪܺܢܐ؟
Why is it not becoming to take a bite one after another {lit. follow a cheek after another}?
ܡܛܠ ܕܙ̇ܕܩ ܕܢܶܠܥܰܣ ܛܳܒܳܐܺܝܬ ܩܕܳܡ ܕܠܰܐܚܪܹܢܐ.
Because one should chew well before (taking) another (bite).

2018-07-24

4 ܡܳܢܐ ܥܳܒܶܕ ܒܰܓܪ̈ܘܡܐ ܘܰܩܠܳܦ̈ܐ ܕܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ؟
What does he do with kernels or skins of fruits?
ܥܰܠ ܓܰܒܐ ܕܦܳܬܘܪܐ ܐܘ ܒܡܐܢܐ ܐ̱ܚܪܢܐ ܢܣܝܡ ܐܢܘܢ.
On the side of the table or into another vessel, he will put them.

ܡܐܢܐ is said to be related to אֳנִיָּה = “ship” (as in Prov30:19) and إِنَاء = “jar” [إِنَآءٌ Lane Lex. I-119b; Freytag 67a]

2018-07-25

5 ܡܘܢ ܙܳܕܶܩ ܕܰܢܨܰܠܶܐ ܒܳܬ̥ܰܪ ܡܶܐܟ̥ܠܐ؟
What should he pray after a meal?
ܫܘܒܚܐ ܠܐܠܗܐ ܥܠ ܛܳܒ̈ܳܬܗ، ܫܘܒܚܐ ܠܐܠܗܐ ܥܠ ܒܘܪ̈ܟܳܬܗ، ܫܘܒܚܐ ܠܐܠܗܐ ܕܡܢ ܕܝܠܗ ܚܳܐܶܝܢܰܢ. ܠܗ ܫܘܒܚܐ ܠܥܳܠܡܝܢ.
“Glory to God on His good things; glory to God on His blessings; glory to God, by whose things we live. To Him, glory for ever and ever.”

burkəṯā burkāṯā

2018-07-29

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

6 ܦܳܬ̥ܘܪܐ
table
ܐܰܝܟ: ܥܰܠ ܦܳܬ̥ܘܪܐ ܐܳܟ̥ܶܠ ܐ̱ܢܐ.
Ex: On the table I eat.
ܣܳܡ ܠܝ ܦܳܬܘܪܐ.
He set a table (prepared a meal) for me.
ܦܰܟܐ
cheek
ܡܚܐ ܠܝ ܥܠ ܦܟܐ ܕܝܠܝ.
He hit me on the cheek.
ܝܰܥܢܐ
greedy
ܗܢܐ ܓܰܒܪܐ ܝܰܥܢܐ.
This is a greedy man.

ܘܓܲܒ݂ܪܵܐ ܡܲܪܵܚܵܐ ܘܝܲܥܢܵܐ ܠܵܐ ܣܵܒܲܥ: (P Hab2:5) {mærrāḥā = “bold”; sbʕ = “to be sated”}

2018-08-07

ܓܪ̈ܘܡܐ
stones (kernels)
ܚܰܚ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ ܒܗܘܢ ܓܪ̈ܘܡܐ.
Plums have stones in them.
ܢܣܰܝܒܰܪ
he/we will wait
ܚܢܰܢ ܢܣܰܝܒܰܪ ܥܕܰܡܐ ܠܚܰܪܬ̥ܐ.
We will wait until the end {ḥærrəṯā}.
https://archive.org/search.php?query=%DC%95%DC%A9%DC%AA%DC%97%DC%92%DC%AB
Qarahbaš
Vol. 5 [1979]
https://archive.org/download/unset0000auth_y8d4/unset0000auth_y8d4_orig_jp2.tar
Vol. 5 (“Lesson 6”) [2008]
https://archive.org/download/syriacreadingles0006frel/syriacreadingles0006frel_orig_jp2.tar
Vol. 6 [1961, 1981]
https://archive.org/download/unset0000auth_r1p4/unset0000auth_r1p4_orig_jp2.tar
Vol. 7 [1968]
https://archive.org/download/unset0000auth_b8f3/unset0000auth_b8f3_orig_jp2.tar
Vol. 8 [1972]
https://archive.org/download/unset0000auth_s1u7/unset0000auth_s1u7_orig_jp2.tar

2018-08-08

7 ܢܶܦܘܚ (ܢܦܘܚ)
he/we will blow
ܠܐ ܙ̇ܕܩ ܕܰܢܦܘܚ ܒܒܘܫܳܠܐ.
It is not adequate that he/we will blow his/our soup.
ܢܶܠܥܰܣ
he/we will eat
ܐ̇ܡܪ ܕܟܠ ܕܠܐ ܨ̇ܒܐ ܕܢܶܦܠܘܚ، ܠܐ ܢܶܠܥܰܣ.
He says that everyone who does not want to work should not eat.

2018-08-13

ܡܛܰܟܣܐ : ܗܘ ܡܠܦܢܐ ܡܛܰܟܣܐ ܗ̱ܘ.
orderly : He is an orderly teacher.
ܩܠܳܦ̈ܐ : ܡܘܙ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ ܠܗܘܢ ܩܠܳܦ̈ܐ. ܠܐ ܢܐܟܘܠ ܩܠܳܦ̈ܐ ܕܡܘܙ̈ܐ.
skins: Bananas have skins. We will not eat the skins of bananas.
ܢܰܘܫܶܛ : ܢܰܘܫܶܛ ܠܗ̇ ܐܝܕܗ ܘܰܢܩܝܡ̇ܗ.
will stretch out: He will give her his hand and will let her stand up.

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 33] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 33 [ܕܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܐ]: ܡܛܐ ܬܰܕܐܳܐ

2018-06-13

mṭy = “to come, reach; to happen, occur”: ܡܛܐ ܙܰܒܢܐ ܕܦܐܪ̈ܐ = “the time for the fruits arrived” (Mt21:34)

teḏā (tæḏā) = “grass, spring”: L4:23

mæššḇā = “blowing, wind”: L4:23, Ac27:14

mṣæbbæṯ mṣæbbṯā (√ṣbt D) = “to adorn”

gæn(nə)ṯā pl. gænnè N §81: גִּינְּתָא pl. גִּינָּתָא

ʕāḇā = m. “forest” [soft B in CAL too now, which had a hard B in the past]

zæhyā = “shining, splendid”

ܡܛܐ ܬܰܕܐܳܐ ܕܡܰܫܒ̈ܐ ܛܳܒ̈ܐ : ܘܢܶܗܪܰܬ̥ ܐܰܪܥܐ ܒܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ
Spring, of nice breeze, has arrived; and the earth has shone (OR has been lit up) with flowers.
ܗܐ ܋ܡܨܰܒܬ̥ܳܢ܌ ܍ܡܨܰܒ̈ܬ̥ܳܢ܌ ܓܰܢ̈ܐ ܘܥܳܒ̈ܐ : ܒܓܰܘܢ̈ܐ ܙܗܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܘܒܰܣܝܡ̈ܐ
Look! Gardens and forests are adding beauty (lit. decorating) [to it]; with shining and fragrant (pleasant) colors.

2018-06-14

The predicative participle “(they are) decorating” is in the feminine form, with the subject “gardens (f.) + forests (m.),” perhaps because the nearer word (“gardens” is immediately after it) is feminine, as if “the gardens are decorating, and also the forests are.” Seyame should be on this participle. ܡܨܰܒ݁̈ܬ݂ܳܢ and ܡܨܲܒ݁ـ̈ܬ݂ܵܢ (1Pt3:5 UK/NY)

yæsmā = jasmine: LS assumes it’s from Middle Persian (cf. pal yāsaman CPD97), while CAL questions that. — šny D = “to move around from place to place” ܡܫܲܢܸܐ (Lk5:16)

šwær = “to leap, bound, spring, jump” — rqæḏ = “to dance” (rare in G, often ræqqeḏ D; curiously, C “to lament”) — ʕænā = “to answer”: ʕænnī D = “to raise (a shout or song); to sing in alternate parts; to sing a response, refrain” — ḥəlé, ḥælyā, ḥəlīṯā; ḥəlæyyā, ḥælyāṯā; like qšé

ܘܗܐ ܥܶܢܕܐ ܒܰܝܢܳܬ̥ ܓܰܢ̈ܐ : ܡܶܢ ܝܰܣܡܐ ܠܘܰܪܕܐ ܡܫܰܢܶܐ
And look! A bird, among the gardens, is moving around; from a jasmine to a rose.
ܫܳܘܰܪ ܪܳܩܶܕ ܘܰܡܥܰܢܶܐ : ܒܩ̈ܳܠܐ ܚܠܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܘܒܰܣܝܡ̈ܐ
He is leaping, dancing, and twittering [in response OR repeatedly]; with sweet and fragrant (pleasant) voices.

Both ḥælyā and bæssīmā mean “sweet”; it seems that √ḥly = “to taste sweet” as in “sugary; not bitter” while √bsm = “to smell sweet” i.e. “fragrant”

2018-06-15

ḥār √ḥwr = “to look” ≠ ḥwær √ḥwr “to become white”: often with b-. ܚܘܪܘ ܒ̈ܢܰܥܒܐ = “Look at ravens” (Thomas194 / II-168)

zīwā = “appearance; splendorous appearance, beauty; shining, brightness,” said to be from Akkadian zīmu [AIOA113] “appearance” via Neo-Babylonian (NB) *zīwu (note: NB is a Babylonian form of Akkadian around 1000 to 600-or-500 BCE, roughly the same period as Old Aramaic; it does not mean the Neo-Babylonian Empire [c. 620–539], although 539 could be seen as the end year of it.) This word appears in Daniel 2:31 (splendor) and in 5:6 (appearance, face), both in BA and Pesh.

ṣwr = “to depict, form”

ܘܐܳܦ ܘܰܪܕܐ ܒܫܶܡܫܐ ܚܳܐܰܪ : ܘܙܝܘܐ ܫܰܦܝܪܐ ܨܳܐܰܪ
And also the rose is looking at the sun; and forming a beautiful appearance.

2018-06-17

pāqæḥ = “flourishing” — bsm D = “to make cheerful, to sweeten” — rèḥā = m. “a smell”: pl. rèḥè, but usually rèḥ-ān-è with ān (N §74)

ܘܟܰܕ ܦܳܩܰܚ ܡܒܰܣܶܡ ܠܐܳܐܰܪ : ܒܪ̈ܝ̣ܚܐ ܚܠܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܘܒܰܣܝܡ̈ܐ
And when blossoming, it is sweetening the air; with [its] sweet and fragrant smells.

ܪܹܝܚܐ ܚܢܢ ܓܝܪ ܒܰܣܝܡܐ ܒܰܡܫܝܚܐ ܠܐܠܗܐ܉ ܒܰܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܚܳܐܹܝܢ܇ ܘܒܰܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܳܐܒܕܝܢ. (2Co2:15⁎) — ḥāyā ḥāy(y)è pl. ḥāyèn OR ḥāʾèn (N §183 (7))

ܡܛܠ ܕܪܝܚܐ ܒܣܝܡܐ ܒܡܫܝܚܐ ܐܺܝܬ̥ܰܝܢ ܠܐܠܗܐ. ܒܗ̇ܢܘܢ ܕܡܫܬܘܙܒܝܢ. ܘܒܗ̇ܢܘܢ ܕܐ̇ܒܕܝܢ. (2Co2:15⁎ H)

ܫܰܘܙܶܒ = “to save” — related to Akkadian ezēbu (PS *ʕazāb) = “to leave”, whose causative is marked with Š- (ša or šu?) just like our C is marked with ʔa- or ha-; hence *šVzb = “to cause to leave; to spare, let go, save” and mušēzibu = “rescuer”, šūzubu = “saved” [cf. AIOA105] — so, our Shaphʕel and ʾEshtaphʕal ܐܶܫܬܰܘܙܰܒ = “to save oneself, escape; to be saved”: Perf. meštäwzæḇ meštäwzəḇīn (cf. ܡܸܫܬܵܘܬ݁ܦܝܼܢ = “participating” Ac2:42)

2018-06-19

The active participles of ܦܩܰܚ (i.e. ܦܳܩܰܚ and ܦܳܩܚܐ) are used to mean “to be better” (lit. “to be flourishing”): ܠܡܸܦܛܰܪ ܪܓܝܓ ܐܢܐ܉ ܕܥܰܡ ܡܫܝܚܐ ܐܸܗܘܹܐ. ܘܗܕܐ ܛܒ ܦ̇ܩܚܐ ܗ̱ܘܬ ܠܝ. = “I wish to leave, so that with M I may be. And that would be much better for me.” (Phil1:23)

ʾumməṯā = “people, nation” — māṯā = “native land”

dāṣ (dwṣ) = “to exult, leap for joy”: duṣ Imperat. as in Lk6:23 [BTW, I noticed that it was a bit difficult to point ܢܒ̥ܺܝ̈ܶܐ in ES (Syrn). NY makes it ܢܒ݂ܝܼ̈ܐ while Mosul (1891) makes it ܢܒ݂ܝܹ̈ܐ. In theory one could write this as ܢܒ݂ܝܼܹ̈ܐ]

zäwʕā = “movement”

ܐܰܚ̈ܐ ܒܢ̈ܰܝܳܐ ܘܰܒܢ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ : ܗܰܒܳܒ̈ܐ ܕܐܽܘܡܬ̥ܐ ܘܡܳܬ̥ܐ
Brothers, sons, and daughters; the flowers of the nation and native land!
ܕܘܨܘ̱ ܐܰܝܟ ܥܶܢ̈ܕܐ ܒܓܰܢܬ̥ܐ : ܒܙܰܘܥ̈ܐ ܛܳܒ̈ܐ ܘܒܰܣܝܡ̈ܐ
Leap for joy like birds in the garden; with nice and fragrant (pleasant) movements!

The first half of the final line only has 6 syllables. One possible way to make it 7-syllable would be to use bḡäw gænṯā “within the garden” or bḡäw gænnè “within the gardens” instead of b-ḡænṯā “in the garden”.

2018-06-25

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

ܐܰܝܟ: ܒܬܰܕܐܳܐ ܢܳܫܒܝܢ ܡܰܫܒ̈ܐ ܦܰܝܽܘܚ̈ܐ.
Example: In spring, cool (pæyyūḥè = breathable, refreshing) breezes {mæššəḇè} blow.
1 ܓܰܘܢܐ : ܓܰܘܢܐ ܕܚܰܙܘܪܐ ܗܢܐ ܣܘܡܳܩ ܗܘ.
Color: The color of this apple is red.
ܝܰܣܡܐ: ܝܰܣܡܐ ܗܰܒܒܐ ܗܘ ܒܰܣܝܡܐ.
Jasmine: Jasmine is a fragrant flower.
ܡܥܰܢܶܐ: ܥܶܢܕܐ ܡܥܰܢܹܐ ܒܩܳܠܐ ܫܰܦܝܪܐ.
Sang repeatedly: The bird sang repeatedly with a beautiful voice.

2018-06-26

ܦܳܩܰܚ: ܒܬܰܕܐܳܐ ܦ̇ܩܚ ܗܰܒ̊ܳܒ̥ܐ.
blossoms: In spring, a flower blossoms.
ܐܘܡܬ̥ܐ: ܐܘܡܬ̥ܐ ܕܝܠܗ ܪܒܐ ܗܝ.
nation: His nation is great.

The plural of ʾumməṯā is usually ʾem(mə)wāṯā, ʾem(mə)wān [N §146], where ŭ is dissimilated to ĕ in frornt of w [Br. Gr. (1960) §62d]

ܠܡܵܢܵܐ ܪܓܲܫܘ ܥܲܡܡܹ̈ܐ: ܘܐܸܡܘ̈ܵܬ݂ܵܐ ܪ̈ܢܲܝ ܣܪܝܼܩܘܼܬ݂ܵܐ:܀
Why did peoples (OR: the Gentiles) rage {rgš} and did nations think of {rny: rnæy 3fp} vanity {srīqūṯā}? (Ps2:1⁎, quoted in Ac4:25)

2018-06-27

ܐܰܝܢܰܘ «ܛܳܒ» ܐܰܝܢܶܘ «ܒܝܫ»

ܐܰܝܟ: ܗܰܘ ܕܰܡܛܰܝܶܒ ܗܶܪ̈ܓܰܘܗ̱ܝ̱ ܫܰܦܝܪ ... ܛܳܒ
Ex: He who prepares for his lessons well ... Good
2 ܗܰܘ ܕܝܳܗܶܒ ܋ܙܶܕܰܩܬ̥ܐ܌ ܍ܙܶܕܩܬ̥ܐ܌ ܠܡܶܣܟܺܢ̈ܐ ... ܛܳܒ
He who gives alms {zeḏqəṯā} to poor men {meskènè} ... Good

2018-06-29

3 ܗܰܘ ܕܫܳܕܶܐ ܟܺܐܦ̈ܐ ܒܟܰܠܒ̈ܐ ... ܒܝܫ
He who throws fruits at a dog ... Bad
4 ܗܰܘ ܕܰܡܗܰܕܶܐ ܠܣܰܡܝܐ ܒܐܽܘܪܚܐ ... ܛܳܒ
He who leads a blind man on a street ... Good

ܘܩ̣ܳܡ ܝܫܘܥ܂ ܘܰܦܩܰܕ ܕܢܸܩܪܘܿܢܳܝܗܝ. ܘܰܩܪܵܐܽܘܗܝ ܠܣܰܡܝܐ܂ ܘܐ̇ܡܪܝܢ ܠܗ. ܐܸܬܠܰܒܰܒ [ܐܶܬܠܰܒ̱̊ܒ̥*1]܁ ܩܘܡ܁ ܩ̇ܪܐ ܠܟ.܀ ܗܘ ܕܝܢ ܣܰܡܝܐ ܫ̣ܕܹܐ ܠܒܳܫܗ܉ ܘܩܳܡ ܐ̣ܬܐ [ܐ̣ܙܠ*2] ܠܘܬ ܝܫܘܥ.܀ ܐ̇ܡܪ ܠܗ ܝܫܘܥ. ܡܳܢܐ ܨ̇ܒܐ ܐܢ̱ܬ ܐܸܥܒܸܕ ܠܟ. ܗܘ ܕܝܢ ܣܰܡܝܐ܂ ܐ̣ܡܪ ܠܗ܂ ܪܰܒ̊ܝ܂ ܕܐܸܚܙܹܐ.܀ (Mk10:49–51⁎) {*1 CAL/UK, *2 NY} — qrā √qry: *neqr(ə)yun > neqrón(-āy/è), like neqṭ(ə)lun neqṭ(ə)lun-āy/è: in OS-S ܢܶܩܪܒܘܿܢܹܗ (neqrəḇónè = neqrwónè ?) instead of neqrónè — qräw (=WS qraw, ES qrāw): qräʾūy OR qrä(w)ūy (N §40G, §192; Muraoka §68j) — læbbeḇ D = “to encourage”: ʾeṯlæbbæb Dt = “to encourage oneself, to be encouraged” Imperat. ʾeṯlæbbæb (=Perf. 3ms), WS ʾeṯlæb(bə)ḇ (N §163) — ṣābè ʾæt ʾeʕbeḏ = “you wish [that] I will do”: The impf. appears with this sense [future], even when the dependence is not plainly expressed (N §267); in his answer, [ṣāḇè nā] d-eḥzè, the dependence is explicit.

2018-06-30

5 ܗܰܘ ܕܡܰܚܪܶܒ ܩܶܢ̈ܐ ܕܨܶܦܪ̈ܐ ... ܒܝܫ
He who destroys the nests of birds ... Bad
6 ܗܰܘ ܕܠܐ ܝܳܨܶܦ ܕܟܬ̥ܳܒ̈ܐ ܕܝܠܶܗ ... ܒܝܫ
He who does not take care of the books of his.

ܝܺܨܶܦ often takes ܕ (N §209B): “to be concerned for that which is of” i.e. “to be concerned about”; or ܕܝܠ (N §225B).

(1) ܚܪܶܒ (e/a) = “to become wasteland, to be destroyed”; C “to devastate, to destroy” — probably from PS *ḫrb (*ḫarāb), attested as Akk. ḫarābu: خَرَبَ ‎*1 = tr. “to devastate” (?), Ugarit. ḫrb = “to be dry”, חָרַב = “to be destroyed, to dry up” — a Peshitta example: ܟܠ ܡܰܠܟܘ ... ܬܶܚܪܰܒ (Mt12:25, mælku abs. N §76)

(2) ܚܪܰܒ (a/ó) = “to slay (?)”: LS3 says this is from PS *ḥrb, as in ܚܰܪܒܐ = “sword, destruction” m. rarely f. (N §87), حَرْب = f. “war”, חֶ֫רֶב = f. “sword”, also, according to wikt, there is a neat Ugartic version, ḥrb = “sword” (two ḫ/ḥ witnesses).

(2a) ܚܪܰܒ (a/ó) = “to destroy”: according to CAL/LS3, this is the transitive version of (1). — a Peshitta example: ܚܳܪܶܒ ܗܘܹܝܬ ܠܗ̇ (ܥܕܬܗ ܕܐܠܗܐ)‏ (Gal1:13)

CAL assumes with an iffy tone that (2) is a transitive variant of (1):

It is clear that there is a peal verb with these consonants meaning "to slay." and using the transitive thematic vowel pattern. Whether this is really a denominative from "sword" rather than simply a transitive variant of ḥrb "to be wasted" is by no means so clear. We assume the latter, but the difference in thematic vowel and, perhaps of greater significance, the difference between the participles ḥreḇ "lying in waste" and ḥrīḇ "slain" show that the distinction was clearly maintained, at least in Syriac. Note, however, the passage cited from P Jos10:28 sub peal meaning #3 in ḥrb #1, where the verb governs both a city and a person as its direct object.

*1 There is a typo in LS2, where this word is written ‏*خَرِبَ, possibly confusion with a form belonging to (2), حَرِبَ = intr. “to be angry”.

Qarahbaš [Book 4, Lesson 32] — ܗܶܪܓܐ 32 [ܕܰܬ̥ܠܳܬ̥ܝܢ ܘܰܬ̥ܪ̈ܶܝܢ]: ܫܘܩ̈ܐ ܕܰܡܕܝܢ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ

2018-05-28

ܒܟܽܠ ܋ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬ̥ܐ܌ ܍ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬ̊ܐ܌ ܪܰܒܬ̥ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܫܘܩ̈ܐ ܣܰܓܺܝ̈ܶܐܐ.
In every big city, there are many sūqā (streets/markets).
ܘܥܰܡ ܬܪ̈ܰܝܗܘܢ ܓܰܒ̈ܐ ܕܫܘܩ̈ܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܕܘܟܰܢ̈ܐ† ܕܰܣܕܝܪ ܒܗܘܢ ܟܽܠ ܐܳܕܫܰܝ̈ ܡܠܘ̈ܐܶܐ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܙܘܒܳܢܐ.
And along both sides {gabbè} of streets/markets, there are shops† {not syc?; not in Maclean #1}, in which all kinds {ʾāḏšā #2} of supplies {mlṓʾā} are arranged {sḏær, sḏīr} for sale {zubbānā v.n.D}.

#1 Perhaps related to dukkānā (CAL) i.e. דּוּכָנָא (Jastrow) = “dais, platform” JLAtg, PTA, etc. Almost certainly from Akkadian (from Sumerian!) da/ukkānnu, "a small chamber or cell" (CAL)
2018-05-31 This might be dukkōnā “a small place” i.e. “booth”, a diminutive (N §131) of dukkā.

#2 ʾāḏšā = εἶδος = “that which is seen; form; kind, class”: though some have argued that it is a native Semitic word (CAL). ܐܳܪܫܐ sometimes means “fruit”: according to Jess. its origin is ellipt. for ܐܳܕ̈ܫܹܐ ܕܫܰܢ̄ܬܐ = “various kinds [of fruits] of year (i.e. the seasons)” — ܐ̇ܡܪܢܐ ܠܟܘܢ ܕܡܢ ܗܫܐ ܠܐ ܐܸܫܬܹܐ ܡܢ ܐܳܕܫܐ ܗܢܐ ܕܰܓܦܸܬܐ. ܥܕܰܡܐ ܕܬܹܐܬܹܐ ܡܠܟܘܬܐ ܕܐܠܗܐ. (OS-C Lk22:18⁎): dæ-ḡəp̄ettā = “vine” — ܨܒܹܝܬ ܕܹܐܬܹܐ ܠܘܬܟܘܢ ... ܕܐܦ ܒܟܘܢ ܢܗܘܐ ܠܝ ܐܳܕܫܐ = “I wanted to come to your place so that, also in you guys, fruit would be for me (=so that I might have some fruit among you)” (Ro1:13)

ܐܰܪܡܰܘ ܡܨܝܕܬܟܘܢ ܡܢ ܓܰܒܐ ܕܝܰܡܝܢܐ ܕܰܣܦܝܢ̱ܬ̊ܐ = “you guys, throw your net {mṣī(t)tā} from the side of the right of the ship” (Jn21:6)

2018-05-29

ܘܟܽܠ ܐܳܕܫܐ ܐܝܬ̥ ܠܶܗ ܫܘܩܐ ܕܝܠܳܢܳܝܐ.
And there are all kinds of special streets/markets.
ܫܘܩܐ ܕܒܰܙܳܙ̈ܐ: ܘܒܶܗ ܐܝܬ̥ ܙܳܩܘܪ̈ܐ ܕܫܺܐܪܐ، ܘܥܰܡܪܐ، ܘܟܶܬܳܢܐ ܘܫܰܪܟܐ ܕܰܠܒܘܫ̈ܐ ܕܰܙܗܶܝܢ ܒܓܰܘܢ̈ܐ ܕܣܘܡܳܩܐ ܘܚܶܘܳܪܐ ܘܝܰܪܘܩܐ ܘܫܰܥܘܬ̥ܐ ܘܰܣܛܰܪ....
A street/market of clothes {#3}: and in it, there are fabrics {zāqūrè} — of silk {*šḗrā = šḗrāyā}, wool, linen {kettānā}, and so on — of (OR for) garments, which are shining {zhy “to shine”: p.p. zhḗ} in colors of red {summāqā}, white, yellow-green {yārṓqā}, yellow {šæʕṓṯā}, etcetera {wæ-sṭær}.

-tā of šæʕṓṯā is hard in CAL, as שַׁעַוְתָּא ‎— ܫܥܘܼܬ݂ܵܐ (P Is64:1(2), London 1913) — ܫܥܘܿܬ݂ܵܐ (P Jer8:22, ibid.) = “balm, ointment”

2018-05-30

#3 bazzāzā = “dealer in cloth” from بَزَّاز = “draper, cloth merchant”: Neo-Syr [bæzɑːz] (Maclean29a)

ܘܫܘܩܐ ܕܒܰܩ̈ܳܠܐ: ܘܒܶܗ ܐܝܬ̥ ܟܽܠ ܐܳܕܫ̈ܰܝ ܦܶܪ̈ܕܐ ܕܐܰܝܟ ܚ̈ܶܛܐ، ܣܥܳܪ̈ܐ، ܪܘܙܐ، ܚܶܡ̈ܨܐ ܘܰܣܛܰܪ...
And [there is] a market of gardeners {#4}: and in it, there are all kinds of grains/seeds {perdè f.pl.} such as wheat grains, barley grains {sʕārè f.pl.}, rice {rūzā m.sg.}, chickpeas {ḥemṣè n.m.pl.t}, etc.

#4 baqqāl = “gardener” (LS2/LS3/CAL) ⟦ŏrĭtor⟧, from بَقَّال = “(green)grocer”: Neo-Syr [bʌqɑːl] = “fruit-seller, grocer” (Maclean37a), from Arabic (see above)/Turkish (bakkal)

2018-05-31

ܫܘܩܐ ܕܝܰܪ̈ܩܘܢܐ: ܘܒܶܗ ܟܽܠ ܙܢ̈ܰܝ ܝܰܪ̈ܩܐ ܕܐܰܝܟ ܋ܒܰܨ̈ܠܐ܌ ܍ܒܸܨ̈ܠܐ܌، ܋ܦܶܓ̈ܠܐ܌ ܍ܦܘܓ̈ܠܐ܌، ܚܰܣ̈ܐ، ܣܶܠܩ̈ܐ، ܝܰܒܪ̈ܘܚܐ، ܒܢܳܬ̥ܓܰܢ̈ܐ، ܘܩܘܦ̈ܛܐ† ܘܰܣܛܰܪ...
A suq of vegetables {#5}: and in it, [there are] all sorts of green things such as onions {beṣlè}, radishes {puḡlè}, lettuces {ḥæssè, sg. ḥæs(sə)ṯā}, beets {selqè}, mandrakes {yæḇrūḥè; here somehow “tomatoes” are meant; this could mean “eggplants”}, mandrakes {bnæṯ-gænnè; “eggplants” are meant}, cauliflowers† {QUP̄ṬÈ prob. not Syriac; maybe from قُنَّبِيط (qunnabīṭ)}, and so on.

#5 yærqōnè = “vegetables”, pl. of yærqā, enlarged with -ān (N §74 fn3), which was changed into -ōn (N §44).

2018-06-01

ܐܶܒ̊ܐ = “fruit”: pl. ܐܶܒܳܢ̈ܐ (N §74), often ܐܶܒ̈ܒܳܢܐ

ܫܘܩܐ ܕܐܶܒܒܳܢ̈ܐ: ܘܒܶܗ ܐܝܬ̥ ܟܽܠ ܓܢܶܣ ܦܺܐܪ̈ܐ ܕܐܰܝܟ ܥܶܢܒ̈ܐ، ܬܺܐܢ̈ܐ، ܡܘܙܐ، ܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ، ܐܶܓܳܨ̈ܐ†، ܘܒܘܨܝܢ̈ܐ ܘܒܰܪܩܘܩܝܐ.
A fruit market: and in it, there is every kind of fruits, such as grapes, figs, banana {mūzā sg.}, apples, pears† {Arabic}, gourds {būsīnè: Qarah. means “cucumbers”}, and apricot {#6}.

#6 bær-quqyā TS1-595; bærqūqāyā CAL/LS2/LS3 — LS2 states that this is from the [Byzantine] Greek word βερίκοκκα [sg. βερίκοκκον]. TS refers to πρεκόκκιον Cf. بَرْقوق “plum”: basically, from Lat. prae-coquō = “to be premature”. French abricot still has -b- from Arabic (English apricot is like French).

2018-06-02

ܘܰܣܛܰܪ ܡܶܢ ܗܳܠܶܝܢ، ܐܝܬ̥ ܫܘܩܐ ܕܩܰܨܳܒ̈ܐ ܡܙܰܒܢ̈ܰܝ ܒܶܣܪ̈ܳܢܐ،
And other than these, there is a suq of butchers {qæṣṣāḇè} — sellers of meats,
ܘܚܳܢܘ̈ܳܬ̥ܳܐ ܕܰܙܢ̈ܰܝ ܦܘܠܚܳܢ̈ܐ ܐܘܡܳܢܳܝ̈ܐ ܕܐܰܝܟ:
and shops {ḥānūṯā pl. ḥānwāṯā} of various (lit. “sorts of”) artisanal {ʾummānāyè} works, such as:
ܢܰܓܳܪ̈ܐ، ܩܰܝܢܳܝ̈ܐ، ܚܰܝ̣̈ܳܛܐ، ܓܳܪ̈ܽܘܥܐ ܙܰܩܳܪ̈ܐ ܘܰܣܛܰܪ.....
carpenters, smiths, tailors, barbers {gārōʕè}, weavers {zæqqārè #7}, et cēterī.

#7 Also, ܙܳܩܘܿܪܐ nom.ag.

2018-06-05

ܘܟܰܕ ܚܰܝ̣̈ܐ ܕܐ̱ܢܳܫ̈ܰܝ ܩܪܝܬ̥ܐ ܥܰܠ ܐܰܟܳܪܘܬ̥ܐ ܘܬܰܪܒܝܬ̥ܐ ܕܩܶܢܝܳܢ̈ܐ ܩܳܝܡܝܢ،
And while the lives of village-men stand on {qwm ʕl} agriculture {ʾækkārūṯā} and the raising of livestock {cattle; lit “possessions”},
ܚܰܝ̣̈ܐ ܗܳܟ̥ܝܠ ܕܰܒܢ̈ܰܝ ܋ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬ̥ܐ܌ ܍ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬ̊ܐ܌ ܥܰܠ ܬܰܓܳܪܘܬ̥ܐ ܐܰܘܟܝܬ̥ ܥܰܠ ܋ܙܶܒܳܢܐ܌ ܍ܙܒܳܢܐ܌ ܘܙܘܒܳܢܐ ܀
the lives of city-boys, therefore, [stand] on commerce {tæggārūṯā}, or in other words, on buying {zḇānā} and selling {zubbānā v.n.D #8}.

#8 ܙܒܵܢܵܐ ܘܙܘܼܒ݁ܵܢܵܐ = “buying and selling, business” LS3-369a. (LS2-187b as Rabb[ula] 213 9)

2018-06-06

ܦܰܢܐ

1 ܋ܐܰܕܟ̥ܰܪ܌ ܍ܐܰܕܟܰܪ܌ ܫܡܳܗ̈ܰܝ ܡܶܕܶܡ ܡܶܢ ܕܘܟܰܢ̈ܐ؟
Mention {C} the names of some of the shops?
ܫܘܩܐ ܕܒܰܙܴܙ̈ܐ، ܫܘܩܐ ܕܒܰܩ̈ܳܠܐ، ܘܫܘܩܐ ܕܝܰܪ̈ܩܘܿܢܐ.
A suq of cloth, a suq of gardeners (grains), and a suq of vegetables.
2 ܡܰܢ ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܒܶܣܪ̈ܳܢܐ؟
Who sells meat?
ܩܰܨܳܒܐ.
A butcher.
3 ܡܰܢ ܚܳܐܶܛ ܠܒܘܫ̈ܐ؟
Who sews {ḥwṭ} garments?
ܚܰܝܳܛܐ.
A tailor.

ܟܘܬ̊ܝܢܗ ܕܝܢ ܐܝܬܹܝܗ̇ ܗ̱ܘܬ ܕܠܐ ܚܺܝܛܐ ܡܢ ܠܥܸܠ = “His tunic {OR (under)garment: fem. kuttīnā NY, CAL || kottīnā N §71, Mosul: perh. from akk or grc χιτών} was without being sewed {pass. pt. f. *ḥwīṭā > ḥīṭā} from above (from the top)” (Jn19:23)

2018-06-07

4 ܡܰܢ ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܚܰܙܘܪ̈ܐ؟
Who (Which) sells apples?
ܫܘܩܐ ܕܶܐܒܒܳܢ̈ܐ.
A suq of fruits.
5 ܒܡܳܢܐ ܦܳܠܰܚ ܩܰܝܢܳܝܐ؟
With what does a smith work?
ܦܰܪܙܠܐ.
Iron.

2018-06-08

ܗܰܒ ܣܘܟܳܠ

6 ܫܘܩ̈ܐ : ܐܰܝܟ: ܐܝܬ̥ ܋ܒܰܡܕܝܢ̱ܬ̥ܐ܌ ܍ܒܰܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܐ܌ ܕܝܠܰܢ ܫܘܩ̈ܐ ܪܰܘܪ̈ܒܐ.
Suqs — Example: In our town there are large suqs.
ܐܶܙܹܠ̱ܬ̥ ܠܫܘܩ̈ܐ ܕܶܐܙܒܶܢ ܦܐܪ̈ܐ ܘܚ̈ܶܛܐ.
I went {ʾezzèṯ} to suqs so that I might buy fruits and wheat.
ܕܘܟܰܢ̈ܐ: ܒܕܘܟܰܢ̈ܐ ܡܙܰܒ̊ܢܝܢ ܗܠܝܢ، ܘܙܳܒ̥ܢܝܢ ܚ̱ܢܰܢ.
Shops: In shops they sell these, and we buy (them).

ܘܡ̣ܢ ܒܬܪ ܬܠܬ ܫܢܝ̈ܢ܉ ܐܶܙܹܠ̱ܬ̥ ܠܐܘܿܪܸܫܠܸܡ (ܠܐܘܽܪܺܫܠܶܡ) ܕܶܐܚܙܹܐ ܠܟܹܐܦܐ. ܘܩܵܘܝܬ ܠܘܬܗ ܝܵܘ̈ܡܬܐ ܚܡܫܬܥܣܪ. (Gal1:18⁎)

ܘܰܐܝܟܰܢܐ ܬܘܒ ܕܰܗ̤ܘܐ ܒܝܵܘ̈ܡܬܗ ܕܠܘܿܛ: ܕܳܐܟ̥ܠܝܢ ܗ̱ܘܘ ܘܫ̇ܬܹܝܢ: ܘܙ̇ܒܢܝܢ ܘܰܡܙܰܒܢܝܢ: ܘܢ̇ܨܒܝܢ ܗ̱ܘܘ ܘܒ̇ܢܹܝܢ: (Lk17:28⁎) — nṣæḇ = “to plant”

2018-06-11

ܫܺܐܪܐ: ܫܹܐܪܐ (ܫܹܐܪܝܳܐ) ܗܢܐ ܪܰܟܝܟܐ ܗ̱ܘ.
Silk: This silk is soft {rækkīḵā}.
ܝܰܒܪܘܚܐ: ܝܰܒܪܘܚܐ ܢܶܨܒܬ̥ܐ ܗ̱ܘ.
Mandrake (or eggplant): A mandrake is a plant {neṣbəṯā}.

2018-06-12

ܩܰܝܢܳܝܐ: ܩܰܝܢܳܝܐ ܥ̇ܒܕ ܒܣܐܡܐ ܘܰܢܚܳܫܐ.
Smith: A smith works with silver and copper.
7 ܡܰܢ ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܒܰܨ̈ܠܐ (ܒܶܨ̈ܠܐ) ܘܚܰܣ̈ܐ ܘܰܣܛܰܪ...؟
Who (Which) sells onions, lettuces, etc.?
ܫܘܩܐ ܕܝܰܪ̈ܩܘܿܢܹܐ.
A suq of vegetables.
8 ܡܰܢ ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܚ̈ܶܛܐ ܘܰܣܥܳܪ̈ܐ ܘܰܣܛܰܪ...؟
Which sells wheat, barley, and so on?
ܫܘܩܐ ܕܒܰܩ̈ܳܠܐ.
A suq of gardeners.
9 ܡܰܢ ܡܙܰܒܶܢ ܠܒܘܫ̈ܐ ܘܰܣܛܰܪ...؟
Which sells clothes, etc.?
ܫܘܩܐ ܕܒ̈ܰܙܳܙܹܐ.
A suq of cloth-dealers.

ܐ̇ܡܪܐ ܗܘܬ ܓܝܪ܉ ܕܳܐܦܸܢ ܠܰܠܒܘܫܗ ܩ̇ܪܒܐ ܐܢܐ܂ ܚܳـܝܳܐ ܐܢܐ܇ (Mk5:28⁎) — ḥāyè, ḥāyyā (ḥāyā?) Part. (N §183 (7)) [pl. ḥāyèn/ḥāʾèn]: ܘܸܐܠܘ ܠܐ ܡܪܝܐ ܕܟܰܪܝ ܝܘ̈ܡܬܐ ܗܢܘܢ܉ ܠܐ ܚܳـܝܹܐ ܗܘܐ ܟܠ ܒܣܰܪ. ܐܠܐ ܡܛܠ ܓܒ̥ܰܝ̈ܳܐ ܕܰܓܒܐ܂ ܟܰܪܝ ܝܘ̈ܡܬܐ ܗܢܘܢ܀ (Mk13:20⁎) — gæḇyā, pl. emph. gḇæyyā (like qænyā: N §72) — ʾellū + Perf, & Part. + wā (N §375): with ʾellū lā accompanied by a noun, the idea of existence does not need to be expressly denoted (N §375C), i.e. “if the lord, who has shortened, were not [existing] (=if the lord were not shortening), this would be happening.” In this specific example, the original is «aorist indicative, & ἂν + aorist indicative», meaning “if he had not shortened, this would have happened,” although in Syriac there is no sharp distinction between unreal-present (breviō: breviāret) and unreal-past (breviāvisset).

2018-06-13 OS-S: ܘܐܠܘ ܠܐ ܟܪܹܝܢ ܗܘܘ ܝܘܡܬܐ ܗܢܘܢ ܠܐ ܚܝܐ ܗܘܐ ܟܠ ܒܣܪ. ܐܠܐ ܡܛܠ ܓܒ̈ܝܐ ܕܓܒܐ ܟܪ̈ܝܢ ܝܘܡܬܐ. — the Seyame on the second krèn p.p. (?) seems inconsistent. But we don’t have Seyame on yāwmāṯā either.

Daniel 5 (Biblical Aramaic/Peshitta)

Daniel 2 is in SyriacL.php, etc.

2018-05-28

Daniel (P/BA) 5:1⁎

ܒܸܠܛܫܵܨܲܪ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ: ܥܒܲܕ݂ ܠܲܚܡܵܐ ܪܲܒܵܐ ܠܐܲܠܹܦ ܪܵܘܪ̈ܒ݂ܵܢܵܘܗܝ: ܘܠܘܼܩܒܲܠ ܐܲܠܦܵܐ ܚܲܡܪܵܐ ܫܵܬܹܐ ܗ̣݇ܘܵܐ.܀
Belṭšāṣær [sic] the King made a great feast {læḥmā = “bread; dinner”} for his 1000 nobles {räwrḇānè}, and was drinking wine {ḥæmrā} in front of the 1000 {hard p in sg.emph. N §93 §148}.

Originally בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר (possibly “Bel will protect the king”) is the Babylonian name of Daniel, while the “king” in the story is called בֵּלְשַׁאצַּר (“Bel, protect the king!”). It seems that the two names are not clearly distinguished in Peshitta. In the actual history Belshazzar was not a king, but a crown prince. His father was Nabonidus, the last king of Neo-Bab, who would be defeated by Cyrus in October, 539 BCE.

בֵּלְשַׁאצַּ֣ר מַלְכָּ֗א עֲבַד֙ לְחֶ֣ם רַ֔ב לְרַבְרְבָנ֖וֹהִי אֲלַ֑ף וְלָקֳבֵ֥ל אַלְפָּ֖א חַמְרָ֥א שָׁתֵֽה׃
-ˈohi = suffix same as in TgO: our -äw(hy)

2018-05-29

Daniel (P/BA) 5:2⁎

ܘܐܸܡܲܪ ܒܸܠܛܫܵܨܲܪ ܒܲܛܥܸܡ ܚܲܡܪܹܗ ܠܡܲܝܬܵܝܘܼ ܡܵܐ̈ܢܹܐ ܕܕܲܗܒ݂ܵܐ ܘܲܕ݂ܣܹܐܡܵܐ: ܕܐܲܦܸܩ ܢܒ݂ܘܼܟܲܕܢܵܨܲܪ ܐܲܒ݂ܘܼܗܝ ܡ̣ܢ ܗܲܝܟ݁ܠܵܐ ܕܒ݂ܐܘܿܪܸܫܠܸܡ:
And Belṭšāṣær [sic] said (commanded), in tasting {ṭʕem = noun} his wine, to bring the vessels of gold and of silver {sèmā}, which Nəḇũḵæḏnāṣær, his father, had brought out from the temple {hæyklā} that [was] in ʾÓrešlem;
ܕܢܸܫܬ݁ܘܿܢ ܒܗܘܿܢ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܘܪܵܘܪ̈ܒ݂ܵܢܵܘܗܝ: ܘܢܸܫܵܘ̈ܗܝ ܘܲܕ݂ܪ̈ܘܼܟܵܬܹܗ.܀
so that they might drink using them — the king and his nobles, and his women (wives) {nešè N §146} and his concubines {drūḵtā, pl. -āṯā N §113: √drk = “to tread (upon)”}.
בֵּלְשַׁאצַּ֞ר אֲמַ֣ר ׀ בִּטְעֵ֣ם חַמְרָ֗א לְהַיְתָיָה֙ לְמָאנֵי֙ דַּהֲבָ֣א וְכַסְפָּ֔א
hayṯāyā (T marked as soft, perh. ay was one vowel for someone who pointed this) = similar to Jar ʾayTāyā: in Syriac there is an M instead of h/ʾ and the final vowel is ū, not ā. — A Re̊ḇīa̭ʕ section is sometimes divided into two with a Le̊ḡarmēh, when Mūnaḥ + Pāsēq + Mūnaḥ + Re̊ḇīa̭ʕ is seen. Here, however, the section is divided into three, and a Gerˈšayim is placed at the additional dividing point. This pattern might be rare.
דִּ֤י הַנְפֵּק֙ נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּ֣ר אֲב֔וּהִי
מִן־הֵיכְלָ֖א דִּ֣י בִירוּשְׁלֶ֑ם
ʾɐ̊ˈḇūhī = practically identical to the form used in TgO — Ye̊rū-še̊lèm {#1} = BH Ye̊rū-šā-ˈla-(y)im
וְיִשְׁתּ֣וֹן בְּה֗וֹן מַלְכָּא֙ וְרַבְרְבָנ֔וֹהִי שֵׁגְלָתֵ֖הּ וּלְחֵנָתֵֽהּ׃
šglh, šgltʔ = “royal consort, queen” Dan; “name or epithet of a goddess” Hatran (الحَضر); from Akkadian [AIOA97] — lḥnh, lḥntʔ = “temple servant” arc-EG; “concubine” Dan (only in pl.), JLAtg, etc. [lḥn n.m. “temple servitor” from Akkadian laḫḫinu (CAL); AIOA66]: לְחֵ(י)נְתָא = “concubine, maid-servant”, pl. לְחֵ(י)נָתָא (Again, the word form in Daniel is identical to that in TgO)

2018-05-30

#1 In this dialect (unlike in Syriac) there seems to be a vowel /ə/ after Š, i.e. not *Ye̊rūš-lèm; as this phrase is sometimes written בִירֽוּשְׁלֶם (4x in Ezra, 1x in Daniel); it’s probably not a mere typo of בִֽירוּשְׁלֶם (3x in Ezra).

Similarly, hēḵlā (hæykəlā) is commonly written with a ˈMèṯèḡ in BA, as if hē-ḵəlā. This is a (no later than) Late Bronze Age borrowing into West Semitic from Akkadian ekallu < Sumerian e2. gal "palace, temple," as evidenced by the preservation of the initial consonant. (CAL) — That is, there must have been an older form of Akkadian /ekallu/ with *h- (or perhaps *ʕ-), something like *haykallu, because this word is either hay- or hē- in Arabic, Ugaritic, Hebrew and Aramaic (in other words, the CUNEIFORM SIGN E2 𒂍 was perhaps originally the sign for HAI or HE). According to ePSD: egal[palace], Sumerian e2gal / Akkadian ekallu were used in roughly 2500–1500 BCE. If the borrowing from Akkadian to West Semitic occured in 2500 BCE (Early Bronze Age), it might be that back then Arabic/Ugaritic/Hebrew/Aramaic were still one proto-language. Even if the borrowing was as new as 1500 BCE, perhaps Aramaic was not yet born (diverged) at that time. It’s a very old borrowing.

Daniel (P/BA) 5:3⁎

ܗܵܝܕܹܝܢ ܐܲܝܬ݁ܝܼܘ ܡܵܐ̈ܢܹܐ ܕܕܲܗܒ݂ܵܐ ܕܐܲܦܸܩ ܡ̣ܢ ܗܲܝܟ݁ܠܵܐ ܕܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ ܕܒ݂ܐܘܿܪܸܫܠܸܡ: ܘܐܸܫܬ݁ܝܼܘ ܒܗܘܿܢ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܘܪܵܘܪ̈ܒ݂ܵܢܵܘܗܝ: ܘܢܸܫܵܘ̈ܗܝ ܘܲܕ݂ܪ̈ܘܼܟ݂ܵܬܹܗ.܀
So then, they brought the vessels of gold, which he {Nebuchadnezzar} had brought out from the temple of God that [was] in ʾÓrešlem; and they drank using them — the king and his nobles, and his wives and his concubines.
בֵּאדַ֗יִן הַיְתִיו֙ מָאנֵ֣י דַהֲבָ֔א
דִּ֣י הַנְפִּ֗קוּ מִן־הֵֽיכְלָ֛א דִּֽי־בֵ֥ית אֱלָהָ֖א
דִּ֣י בִירֽוּשְׁלֶ֑ם
hanˈpiqu = “they brought”: similar to the regular C 3mp form in TgO, except the 1st-N is not assimilated; “he brought” in Peshitta.
וְאִשְׁתִּ֣יו בְּה֗וֹן מַלְכָּא֙ וְרַבְרְבָנ֔וֹהִי
שֵׁגְלָתֵ֖הּ וּלְחֵנָתֵֽהּ׃
ʾištīw = like Syriac; the TgO form seems to be ʾištiʾu (close enough!)

2018-05-31

Daniel (P/BA) 5:4⁎

ܐܸܫܬ݁ܝܼܘ ܚܲܡܪܵܐ: ܘܫܲܒܲܚܘ ܠܐܲܠܵܗܹ̈ܐ ܕܕܲܗܒ݂ܵܐ ܘܲܕ݂ܣܹܐܡܵܐ: ܘܕܲܢܚܵܫܵܐ ܘܲܕ݂ܦܲܪܙܠܵܐ: ܘܲܕ݂ܩܲܝܣܵܐ ܘܲܕ݂ܟܹܐܦܵܐ.
They drank wine, and praised gods of gold and of silver, and of copper (alloy) and of iron, and of wood {qæysā} and of stone.
אִשְׁתִּ֖יו חַמְרָ֑א
וְ֠שַׁבַּחוּ לֵֽאלָהֵ֞י דַּהֲבָ֧א וְכַסְפָּ֛א נְחָשָׁ֥א פַרְזְלָ֖א אָעָ֥א וְאַבְנָֽא׃
šabbahū = also šabˈbahu in TgO — ʾāʕā = “wood” Com (“tree” in PS) — ʾaḇnā = “stone” Com; kēp̄ā = “large rock” Com, later “stone”

2018-06-11 ܠܐ ܬܸܩܢܘܿܢ ܕܰܗܒ̥ܐ܂ ܘܠܐ ܣܹܐܡܐ܂ ܘܠܐ ܢܚܳܫܐ ܒܟܝ̈ܣܰܝܟܘܢ. (Mt10:9⁎) — qny = “to acquire; to have”

2018-06-01

Daniel (P/BA) 5:5a⁎

ܘܒ݂ܵܗ̇ ܒܫܵܥܬ݂ܵܐ: ܢܦܲܩ ܨܸܒ݂̈ܥܵܬ݂ܵܐ ܕܐܝܼܕ݂ܵܐ ܕܐ݇ܢܵܚܵܐ: ܘܟ݂ܵܬ݂̈ܒܵܢ ܠܘܼܩܒܲܠ ܫܪܵܓ݂ܵܐ: ܥܲܠ ܟܸܠܫܵܐ ܕܐܸܣܬ݂ܵܐ ܕܲܒ݂ܗܲܝܟ݁ܠܵܐ ܕܡܲܠܟܵܐ:
And in that [same] hour, the fingers of a hand of a man (=a human hand) came out {3fp}, and [were] writing in front of the lamp, on the lime {kelšā #2} of the foundation {ʾeštā, f. though T is orig. radical: N §86} of the palace of the king.
בַּהּ־שַׁעֲתָ֗ה נפקו (כ נְפַ֙קָה֙ ק) אֶצְבְּעָן֙ דִּ֣י יַד־אֱנָ֔שׁ
וְכָֽתְבָן֙ לָקֳבֵ֣ל נֶבְרַשְׁתָּ֔א
עַל־גִּירָ֕א
דִּֽי־כְתַ֥ל הֵיכְלָ֖א
דִּ֣י מַלְכָּ֑א
nəˈp̄aqā (3fp) = identical to its TgO form — ʾeṣbʕā (originally m.) & ʾṣbʕtʾ (*ʾeṣbaʕTā) f. = both have the same pl. form ʾeṣbʕān āṯā — kāṯəˈḇān = there is a vowel before the B, and the B is soft! Identical to the TgO form. — neḇraštā (Syriac vocalization: naḇreštā) = either Old Persian or Akkadian. — kṯal kuṯlā = “wall”

#2 “chalk, whitewash, lime” Syr (CAL). According to LS2/LS3, this is from χάλιξ, χάλικος [ᾰ] (m. or f.) = “small stone; gravel, rubble, used in building” — gīr(ā) = “chalk, lime, plaster” Official Aramaic in general (in this verse, usually translated as “plaster”)

2018-06-02

Daniel (P/BA) 5:5b⁎

ܘܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܚܙܵܐ ܦܲܣܬ݂ܵܐ ܕܐܝܼܕܵܐ ܕܟܵܬ݂ܒܵܐ.܀
And the king saw the palm {pæssəṯā f.} of the hand {f.} that [was] writing.
וּמַלְכָּ֣א חָזֵ֔ה פַּ֥ס יְדָ֖ה דִּ֥י כָתְבָֽה׃
And the king [was] seeing of the palm {m.} of the hand {f.} that [was] writing.

2018-06-15

Daniel (P) 5:6a⁎

ܗܵܝܕܹܝܢ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܙܝܼܘܹܗ ܫܢܵܐ: ܘܪܸܥܝܵܢܹܗ ܐܸܬ݁ܕܲܠܲܚ:
Then as for the king, his splendorous appearance {zīwā: topic-subject} faded {šnā}; and his mind {reʕyānā} was agitated {dlæḥ ʾeddælæḥ Dt}.

2018-06-16

Daniel (BA) 5:6a⁎

Suffixed plural nouns (or suffixed nouns in general) in BA are very similar to those of TgO. For example, from yom-ayyā: yom-ay, yom-āḵ (Qr), yom-ˈohi, yom-ah (Qr); they are exactly the same as the corresponding TgO forms, except “her days” would be yom-ˈahā with extra -ā in TgO [ref. Johns: A Short Grammar of Biblical Aramaic (1972), p. 13; Lambdin, Huehnergard: An Introduction to the Aramaic of Targum Onkelos (2002), p. 21]. Based on that, I’m pretty sure that *ziw-ayyā (pl. of ziwā) + “his” is ziˈwohi (can be written with U+05BA HEBREW POINT HOLAM HASER FOR VAV), and not *zi-yo-hi.

שְׁנוֹ is ܫܢܵܘ (3mp), and שְׁנ֫וֹהִי is ܫܢܵܐܽܘܗܝ (+him).

bhl D bahhel = “to trouble”: Impf. *yəḇahhel *yəḇahhəlun > yə-ḇa-hɐ̊-lun (w. suf. -lun-neh) — Here, Imperfect seems strange as Aramaic (unlike w + Impf. in Hebrew).

אֱדַ֤יִן מַלְכָּא֙ זִיוֺ֣הִי שְׁנ֔וֹהִי וְרַעיֹנֹ֖הִי יְבַהֲלוּנֵּ֑הּ
Then as for the king, his splendorous appearance {pl.} faded for him (OR faded on him), and his thoughts troubled him.

2018-06-19

Daniel (P) 5:6b⁎

qeṭrā = “knot, joint”

ḥæṣṣā = Syr “loin” — ḥrṣ in other dialects, e.g. חַרְצָא — Arabic خَصْر

šrī = “to loosen”: Gt ʾeštrī

burkā = fem. “knee” — hence, nqæš 3fp

ܘܩܸܛܪ̈ܲܝ ܚܲܨܹܗ ܐܸܫܬ݁ܪܝܼܘ: ܘܒ݂ܘܼܪ̈ܟܵܘܗܝ ܚܕ݂ܵܐ ܠܲܚܕ݂ܵܐ ܢܩܲܫ.܀
And the joints of his loins were loosed, and his knees knocked against each other.

2018-06-20

Daniel (BA) 5:6b⁎

וְקִטְרֵ֤י חַרְצֵהּ֙ מִשְׁתָּרַ֔יִן
וְאַ֨רְכֻבָּתֵ֔הּ דָּ֥א לְדָ֖א נָֽקְשָֽׁן׃
*mištarˈrayin > mištāˈrayin Dt Part. m. pl. (cf. mištəˈrayin Gt) — in BA א and ר are not geminated, and as compensation, Short vowels before א and ר are lengthened (Rosenthal: A Grammar of Biblical Aramaic (1961), §20). Instead of -ayin, the ending would be -è(y)n in Syriac, and -an in TgO.
*ʾar(ə)ḵubbəṯā (?), pl. ʾar(ə)ḵubbāṯā — K is soft, as the original word is something like rəḵuḇtā (Jastrow 1479a).

Sometimes a stand-alone word has both Zāqēp̄ Qāṭōn and Qaḏmā, where the Qaḏmā is called Me̊ṯīḡā (מְתִיגָה), which can be seen as a variation of ˈMèṯèḡ. The combination of ZQ and Me̊ṯīḡā is a variation of Zāqēp̄ Gāḏōl, and it may occur when there are 3 vowels (including e̊) in the word in question before the vowel on which ZQ is placed. Other examples include Dn2:44, 2:48. [ref. Zakef katon und Metiga | Metiga | Davis, Arthur (1900), p. 15 | Cantor Gastón's Website-Tutorial]

2018-06-24 “3 vowels” might be counted from the next vowel after the previous tone syllable; in Dn2:41, the word par-ze̊-ˈlā has ZQ+M even though there are only two vowels before ˈlā in that word (but 3, if -ṯāh from the prev. word counts): חֲזַ֔יְתָה פַּ֨רְזְלָ֔א

2018-06-21

ZQ+Me̊ṯīḡā may occur when there are four vowels before ZQ, as in the above example (we̊-ʾar-ḵub-bā-ˈṯeh, OR possibly even we̊-ʾa-re̊-ḵub-bā-ˈṯeh). Another such example from Num13:20 is וְהִ֨תְחַזַּקְתֶּ֔ם = “you guys shall strengthen yourselves,” where Perf. 2mp (of Hithpaʕʕel; -tèm is our -tón) is used like imperative (G §106m).

Daniel (P) 5:7⁎

ḥæylā = “force, strength”: abs. ḥæyl = ḥèl

lə-mæʕʕālu C Inf. like mæqṭālu (ʾæʕʕel C)

ʾærg(ə)wānā = “purple” — ܐܢ̱ܬܬܐ ܚܕܐ ܡܙܰܒܢܰܬ ܐܰܪܓܘܳܢܐ = “a woman, seller of purple [cloth]” (Ac16:14)

hæmnīḵā = “necklace” from Old Persian (ca. 600–400 BCE) [peo]

ṣäwrā = “neck” [older form ṣwʔr]

šlæṭ (a/a) = “to bear rule”: cf. “sultan” = سُلْطَان from ܫܘܠܛܳܢܐ (s1=š in Aramaic, s in Arabic, but both are written like “w”)

ܘܲܩ̣ܪܵܐ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܒܚܹܝܠ: ܠܡܲܥܵܠܘܼ ܠܐܵܫ̈ܘܿܦܹܐ: ܘܲܠܟܲܠܕܵܝܹ̈ܐ: ܘܠܲܡܓ݂ܘܼܫܹ̈ܐ: ܘܲܠܚܲܟ݁ܝܼܡܹ̈ܐ:
And the king called loudly (lit. with strength) to bring in (i.e. summon) spell-casters and Chaldeans and magi and wise men.
ܥܢܵܐ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܘܐܸܡܲܪ ܠܚܲܟ݁ܝܼܡܹ̈ܐ ܕܒ݂ܵܒܹܠ: ܟܠ ܐ݇ܢܵܫ ܕܢܸܩܪܹܐ ܟܬ݂ܵܒ݂ܵܐ ܗܵܢܵܐ ܘܲܦܫܵܪܹܗ ܢܚܵܘܹܝܢܝ:
The king responded [to occasion] and said: “Anyone who will read this writing and will show me its interpretation,
ܐܲܪ̈ܓܘܵܢܹܐ ܢܸܠܒܲܫ: ܘܗܲܡܢܝܼܟ݂ܵܐ ܕܕܲܗܒ݂ܵܐ ܒܨܵܘܪܹܗ: ܘܬ݂ܘܼܠܬܵܐ ܒܡܲܠܟ݁ܘܼܬܵܐ ܢܸܫܠܲܛ.܀
shall wear purple [clothes], also a necklace of gold around his neck, and, [as] one-third, [he] shall rule over the kingdom!”

In BA, it is said that taltā/taltī = “third ranking official”; it seems that Pesh. says, “shall rule over the kingdom, one-third [of it],” except it doesn’t simply say “shall rule over one-third of the kingdom” (nešlæṭ b-ṯulṯā d-mælkūṯā). It might mean, “shall rule the kingdom [as] one of the three rulers.”

2018-06-23

Daniel (BA) 5:7⁎

*haʕʕālā > hanʕālā, hèʕālā = Syr. mæʕʕālu

קָרֵ֤א מַלְכָּא֙ בְּחַ֔יִל
לְהֶֽעָלָה֙ לְאָ֣שְׁפַיָּ֔א
כַּשְׂדָּיֵא [כ כַּשְׂדָּאֵ֖י ק]
וְגָזְרַיָּ֑א
The king called loudly to bring in the spell-casters, Chaldeans, [and] diviners.

(Mūnaḥ+ZQ on one word) If a word with ZQ has a ˈMèṯèḡ on its first syllable, that ˈMèṯèḡ may change into Mūnaḥ, resulting in a word with two accent marks:

This does not happen, however, if the ˈMèṯèḡ is on the first vowel of the word, and if the preceding syllable (i.e. the last syllable of the previous word) has a Pašṭā accent.

Ref. Davis (1900), p. 14 | Zakef katon und Munach auf einem Wort [More examples]

עָנֵ֨ה מַלְכָּ֜א וְאָמַ֣ר ׀ לְחַכִּימֵ֣י בָבֶ֗ל
דִּ֣י כָל־אֱ֠נָשׁ דִּֽי־יִקְרֵ֞ה כְּתָבָ֣ה דְנָ֗ה
וּפִשְׁרֵהּ֙
יְחַוִּנַּ֔נִי
The king [was] responding and saying to the wise men of Babylon: “Anyone who will read this writing, and will show me its interpretation,”
אַרְגְּוָנָ֣א יִלְבַּ֗שׁ
וְהַמּוֹנְכָא [כ וְהַֽמְנִיכָ֤א ק] דִֽי־דַהֲבָא֙ עַֽל־צַוְּארֵ֔הּ
וְתַלְתִּ֥י בְמַלְכוּתָ֖א
יִשְׁלַֽט׃ ס
“shall wear the purple, and a necklace of gold around his neck, and as a Taltī in the kingdom, he shall rule.”

Re̊ḇīa̭ʕ: If two connected words precede, both having Mūnaḥ, and if the former has a slightly distinctive sense, then it has Mūnaḥ Le̊ḡarmeh (ML). Sometimes the normal Mūnaḥ is preceded by Geršayim and sometimes by Geršayim and ML. (ibid. p. 18)

The final sub-section of Re̊ḇīa̭ʕ or ML may be ˈGereš [ˈGèrèš in G §15f], Geršayim, or so-called ʾAzlā (aka Qaḏmā we̊-ʾAzlā; visually looks like ˈGereš with Qaḏmā). If the word to take one of those three accents is an oxytone, and preceded by a connective word, ʾAzlā is used; if the word is an oxytone, but not preceded by a connective word, Geršayim is used; otherwise (i.e. if the word is not an oxytone), ˈGereš on its own may be used. Somewhat confusingly, ˈGereš on its own can be preceded by Qaḏmā (as in Dn2:9, 2:45). (ibid. pp. 19, 22–26)

Maybe this means that although Q+ʾAzlā looks exactly like Q+ˈGereš, these two are different melodies. On the other hand, ˈGereš may be used truly on its own, without Qaḏmā (as in Dn5:17).

תְּ֠לִישָׁא גְדוֹלָה is a non-final subdivision of the same level.

2018-06-24

More examples of Mūnaḥ+ZQ on one word

See above.

2018-06-27

Memo: a new scan of OT London 1913
Reprinted from the Urmiah edition of 1852

https://archive.org/details/oldtestamentinsy00lond    500 ppi, 2010 scan “insy00”

https://archive.org/details/oldtestamentins00lond     500 ppi, not optimal but pretty good;
                                                      “ins00” 2014 scan

https://archive.org/details/theholybibleoldt0001anon  300 ppi, a bit blurred, yet somewhat
                                                      better in a few respects, 2018 scan

Daniel (P) 5:8⁎

ܗܵܝܕܹܝܢ ܥܵܐܠܝܼܢ ܗ̣݇ܘܵܘ ܚܲܟ݁ܝܼܡܹ̈ܐ ܕܡܲܠܟܵܐ: ܘܠܵܐ ܡܸܫܟ݁ܚܝܼܢ ܗ̣݇ܘܵܘ ܟܬ݂ܵܒ݂ܵܐ ܠܡܸܩܪܵܐ: ܘܲܦܫܵܪܹܗ ܠܡܵܘܕܵܥܘܼ ܠܡܲܠܟܵܐ.܀
Then the wise men of the king were entering. And they are not able to read the writing and to inform its interpretation to the king.

2018-07-01

Daniel (BA) 5:8⁎

khl = OA, arc-EG, Dan “to be able” (= ykl)

mikrē & *haydāʕā (> hōḏāʕā) inf. = almost identical to TgO form

אֱדַ֙יִן֙ עָלֲלִין [כ עָֽלִּ֔ין ק] כֹּ֖ל חַכִּימֵ֣י מַלְכָּ֑א
Then all the wise men of the king [were] entering,
וְלָֽא־כָהֲלִ֤ין כְּתָבָא֙ לְמִקְרֵ֔א
וּפִשְׁרָא [כ וּפִשְׁרֵ֖הּ ק]
לְהוֹדָעָ֥ה לְמַלְכָּֽא׃
and [were] not being able to read the writing and inform the king of its interpretation.

Firm Mèṯèḡ: on a long vowel + vocal šəwā + tone syllable — technically, though, the šəwā in עָֽלְלִ֫ין is not vocal (at least in Syriac); it might be that the first L got a short vowel here, before the second L, due to ad-hoc melody-related reasons.

Ordinary Mèṯèḡ: always added to the final open syllable followed by a hyphen (לָֽא־כַהֲלִ֫ין), when the next vowel (“a” in this example) is toneless.

2018-07-06

Daniel (P) 5:9⁎

dællæḥ D = “to trouble”: *ʾeṯdællæḥ > ʾeddællæḥ Dt = “to perturbed” — šny: šænnī D = “to change”: ʾeštænnī Dt — blhy: bælhī Quad = “to terrify”: ʾeṯbælhī = Quad T “to be terrified”

ܗܵܝܕܹܝܢ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܒܸܠܛܫܵܨܲܪ ܣܲܓ݁ܝܼ ܐܸܬ݁ܕܲܠܲܚ: ܘܙܝܼܘܹܗ ܐܸܫܬܲܢܝܼ: ܘܪܵܘܪ̈ܒ݂ܵܢܵܘܗܝ ܡܸܬ݂ܒܲܠܗܹܝܢ ܗ̣݇ܘܵܘ.
So then King Belṭ(ə)šāṣær was much perturbed, and his expression changed itself. And his noblemen was being terrified.

2018-07-07

Daniel (BA) 5:9⁎

The Aramaic word śaggī has s2 in older dialects, including BA. *bahhel > *bahel D = “to trouble, to frighten”: Dt Part. *miṯbahhal > miṯbāhal (cf. Alger F. Johns, p. 7, no. 3, 8c) — zīwā, pl. *zīwayyā, +suf. zīˈwohī (?) — šny, Part. m. pl. šānayin (Syr. would be šānē(y)n) — šbš D = “to confuse”

אֱ֠דַיִן מַלְכָּ֤א בֵלְשַׁאצַּר֙ שַׂגִּ֣יא מִתְבָּהַ֔ל
וְזִיוֹ֖הִי (וְזִיוֺ֖הִי)
שָׁנַ֣יִן עֲל֑וֹהִי
So then King Belšaṣṣar was much frightened, and his (splendrous) appearance {pl.} [was] changing (for the worse) upon him.
וְרַבְרְבָנ֖וֹהִי מִֽשְׁתַּבְּשִֽׁין׃
And his nobles [were] confounded.

miš-ta-bbə-šīn (OR mīš-?) — maybe a melody-related Meṯeḡ? Not *mī-šə- since the following T is hard.

2018-07-15

Daniel (P) 5:10a⁎

mæštəyā (Jewish mištəyā) = “drinking; feast” — räwr(ə)ḇānäw > räwḙrḇānäw

ܘܡܲܠܟ݁ܬ݂ܵܐ ܡܸܛܠ ܡܸܠܲܝ̈ ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܘܪܵܘܪ̱̈ܒ݂ܵܢܵܘܗܝ: ܠܒܹܝܬ݂ ܡܲܫܬ݁ܝܵܐ ܥܸܠܲܬ݀:
And the queen, because of the words of the king and his noblemen, into the house of feast, she entered.

2018-07-18 ܚܫܳܡܝܬܐ ܥܒܰܕ ܗܘܐ ܠܪܘܪ̈ܒܢܘܗ̱ܝ = “he had made a supper to his great ones (nobles, etc.)” (Mk6:21) — ܡܠܟ̈ܐ ܘܪܘܪ̈ܒܢܹܐ = “kings and great ones” (1Ti2:2)

2018-07-19

Daniel (BA) 5:10a⁎

מַלְכְּתָ֕א
לָקֳבֵ֨ל מִלֵּ֤י מַלְכָּא֙ וְרַבְרְבָנ֔וֹהִי
לְבֵ֥ית מִשְׁתְּיָ֖א
עַלֲלַת [כ עַלַּ֑ת ק]
The queen, facing {lɔqɔ̊ḇēl} the words of the king and his nobles, into the house of feast, entered.

ܠܘܼܩܒ̥ܰܠ prep. from *qůḇæl (*læ-qůḇæl > *lu-qůḇæl > luq(ə)ḇæl: Br (1960) §52 Anmerkung 1), as in ܠܐ ܬܩܘܡܘܼܢ ܠܘܩܒ̥ܰܠ ܒܝܫܐ = “you guys should not stand up against an evil one” (Mt5:39) — as such, the Jewish version is prob. lɔ-qɔ̊ḇēl, though lā-qɔ̊ḇēl (=lɔ̄-qɔ̊ḇēl in Tiberian) is not unthinkable.

2018-07-26

Daniel (P/BA) 5:10b⁎

dlæḥ a/a neḏræḥ = “to stir up”: D dællæḥ = fig. “to trouble”: nḏælləḥun(āḵ)

šny: Dt ʾeštænnī neštænnón = “to be changed”

ܥܢܵܬ݀ ܘܐܸܡܪܲܬ݀ ܠܡܲܠܟܵܐ: ܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܠܥܵܠܲܡ ܚܝܝܼ: ܪܸ̈ܥܝܵܢܲܝܟ ܠܵܐ ܢܕܲܠܚܘܼܢܵܟ: ܘܙܝܼܘܲܝ̈ܟ ܠܵܐ ܢܸܫܬܲܢܘܿܢ.܀
She replied and said to the king: “O King, live forever. Do not let your thoughts trouble you, and do not let your splendid appearances (≈honorable face) be changed.”

ܫܡܝܥ ܠܢ܉ ܕܐ̱ܢܳܫܝ̈ܢ ܡܸܢܢ ܢ̣ܦ̥ܰܩܘ ܘܕܰܠܰܚܟ̥ܘܢ ܒܡ̈ܠܹܐ܉ = “it is heard by us that certain persons from us went out and troubled you guys with words.” (Ac15:24) {dællæḥ-ḵón is used instead of dælləḥu-ḵón in P and H: see N §186}

אֲמֶ֫רֶת = a peculiar form in BA, apparent segholate (Johns 52 [XI, 10]): TgO אֲמַ֫רַת (Gn16:13)

עֲנָ֨ת מַלְכְּתָ֜א וַאֲמֶ֗רֶת מַלְכָּא֙ לְעָלְמִ֣ין חֱיִ֔י
The queen answered and said: “O King, live forever and ever.”

2018-07-27

bhl D (bahhel) = “to trouble, frighten”: Impf. 3mp *yəḇahhəlun (≈TgO/Syriac), but +suf. -luḵ instead of -lunnāḵ/lunāḵ, possibly -lu (w/o -n, Jussive 3mp) + -(ā)ḵ

2018-07-28

raʕyōnā BA JLAtg = syc. reʕyānā: רַעְעוֹנָךְ for רַעְעוֹנָיךְ pl. (See Dn2:29)

ʾištannon Dt Impf 3mp: ʾištanno = Jussive

אַֽל־יְבַהֲלוּךְ֙ רַעְיוֹנָ֔ךְ וְזִיוָ֖יךְ אַל־יִשְׁתַּנּֽוֹ׃
Do not let your thoughts trouble you, and do not let your (bright) face be changed.

2018-07-29

Daniel (P) 5:11a⁎

ܐܝܼܬ݂ ܓܲܒ݂ܪܵܐ ܒܡܲܠܟܘܼܬ݂ܵܟ: ܕܪܘܼܚ ܐܲܠܵܗ̈ܝܼܢ ܩܲܕ̈ܝܼܫܝܼܢ ܐܝܼܬ݂ ܒܹܗ:
“There is a man in your kingdom, in whom the spirit of holy gods exists.”
ܘܲܒ݂ܝܵܘ̈ܡܲܝ ܐܲܒ݂ܘܼܟ: ܢܲܗܝܼܪܘܼܬ݂ܵܐ ܘܣܘܼܟܵܠܵܐ ܘܚܸܟ݂ܡ̱ܬ݂ܵܐ ܣܲܓ݁ܝܼܐܬ݂ܵܐ: ܐܲܝܟ ܚܸܟ݂ܡܲܬ݂ ܐܲܠܵܗ̈ܝܼܢ ܐܸܫܬܲܟ݂ܚܲܬ݀ ܒܹܗ:
“And in the days of your father, enlightenment and understanding and much wisdom, like the wisdom of gods, was found in him.”

næhhīrūṯā f. from næhhīr adj.

sukkālā v.n.D (nōmen actiōnis, type Quṭṭālā N §117), √śkl

*śæggīʔā *śæggīʔè; *śæggī(ʔ)ṯā *śæggīʔāṯā

ʾeškæḥ/ʾeškəḥæṯ G, ʾeštəḵæḥ/ʾeštæḵḥæṯ Gt

2018-08-02

Daniel (BA) 5:11a⁎

אִיתַ֨י גְּבַ֜ר בְּמַלְכוּתָ֗ךְ דִּ֠י ר֣וּחַ אֱלָהִ֣ין קַדִּישִׁין֮ בֵּהּ֒
“There is a man in your kingdom, in whom [there is] a spirit of holy gods.”

סֶגוֹל֒ or סְגֽוֹלְתָּא֒ is sometimes explained as the end of the first section of a three-section verse [Davis (1900), §22]. More commonly, it is said that it’s a strong second-level disjunctive, marking the end of a subsection of the first semi-verse. G §15f states that it marks the fourth or fifth subordinate division, counting backwards from ʾAthnâḥ (e.g. Gn I7.28). Here “the fourth or fifth” seems to refer to a meaning-wise division rather than a formal cantillation division; if one counts formal divisions, it would be the third (counting backwards from ATN) in a phrase like SGL(3)-TIP(2)-ATN(1) [e.g. Gn1:28], or it is the fourth in a phrase like SGL(4)-ZQQ(3)-TIP(2)-ATN(1) [e.g. Gn48:16], or it is the fifth in a phrase like SGL(5)-ZQQ(4)-ZQQ(3)-TIP(2)-ATN(1) [e.g. Gn1:7]. More generally, such a “formal” number of SGL equals to the number of second-level disjunctives (usually ZQQ) between (α) the SGL itself and (β) the final second-level disjunctive before ATN (usually TIP), both inclusive, plus 1. Wikipedian spellings of SGL, such as סֶגּוֹל (with a Dagesh) or סְגוֹל (with a Sheva), may not be accurate.

2018-08-04

זַרְקָא֮ is called צִנּוֹר in the three poetic books, both being a disjunctive (distinctive). Their Unicode name is U+05AE HEBREW ACCENT ZINOR. On the other hand, צִנּוֹרִ֘ת is a conjunctive used in the three books (e.g. Ps2:7). In Unicode it’s incorrectly called U+0598 HEBREW ACCENT ZARQA [propely ZARQA should have been the name of U+05AE above]. See Unicode Technical Note #27 Known Anomalies in Unicode Character Names.

וּבְיוֹמֵ֣י אֲב֗וּךְ נַהִיר֧וּ וְשָׂכְלְתָנ֛וּ וְחָכְמָ֥ה כְּחָכְמַת־אֱלָהִ֖ין
הִשְׁתְּכַ֣חַת בֵּ֑הּ
“And in the days of your father, enlightenment and understanding and wisdom {ḥɔḵmā} like wisdom of gods were (lit. was) found in him.”

Some feminine nouns end in -u in the absolute state: מַלְכוּ — const. מַלְכוּת — emph. מַלְכוּתָא [Eric D. Reymond, p. 35]. This is exactly like ܡܰܠܟܘ — const. ܡܰܠܟܘܬ — emph. ܡܰܠܟܘܬܐ [N §76]. Hence, nahhīrū(ṯā); śɔḵləṯānū(ṯā) = śuḵləṯānū(ṯā)

הִשְׁתְּכַח [Dn6:24, Ez6:2] is quite regular, practically the same as ܐܶܫܬܟ̥ܰܚ [Lk9:36, etc.]; except it may be written הִשְׁתֲּכַח [Dn2:35], which suggests a possible merger of ḵ /x~χ/ and ḥ /ħ/.

ܐܶܫܬܰܟ̥ܚܰܬ̥ [Mt1:18], on the other hand, is הִשְׁתְּכַ֫חַת in BA; that is, before the final T (ṯ or t), a segholate of type Hiṯqəˈṭèlèṯ or Hiṯqəˈṭalaṯ may occur instead of Hiṯqaṭlaṯ, especially in Lamedh Laryngeal verbs (Johns, X, 4-E; IX, 3).

2018-08-05

Daniel (P/BA) 5:11b⁎

ܘܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܢܒ݂ܘܼܟܲܕ݂ܢܵܨܲܪ ܐܲܒ݂ܘܼܟ: ܪܲܒ݁ ܚܲܪ̈ܵܫܹܐ ܘܐܵܫ̈ܘܿܦܹܐ ܘܲܡܓ݂ܘܼܫܹ̈ܐ ܘܟܲܠܕܵܝܹ̈ܐ ܐܲܩܝܼܡܹܗ.܀
“And King Nəḇuḵæḏnāṣær, your father, established him as the chief of magicians {ḥærrāšè}, incantators, magi, and astrologers.”
וּמַלְכָּ֤א נְבֻֽכַדְנֶצַּר֙ אֲב֔וּךְ
רַ֧ב חַרְטֻמִּ֣ין אָֽשְׁפִ֗ין כַּשְׂדָּאִין֙ גָּזְרִ֔ין
הֲקִימֵ֖הּ
אֲב֥וּךְ מַלְכָּֽא׃
“And King Nəḇuḵaḏnèṣṣar, your father, established him as the chief of magicians, incantators, astrologers, and diviners; your father, the king, [did that].”

2018-08-06

Mt24:45⁎ (P/Greek)

ܡܰܢܘ ܟܰܝ ܐܝܬܘܗ̱ܝ ܥܰܒ̣ܕܐ ܡܗܰܝܡܢܐ ܘܚܰܟܝܡܐ܉ ܕܐܩܝܡܗ ܡܳܪܹܗ ܥܠ ܒܢܝ̈ ܒܝܬܗ܇ ܕܢܶܬܶܠ ܠܗܘܢ ܣܰܝܒܳܪܬܐ ܒܙܰܒܢܳܗ̇. — hæymen Paiel = “to believe”: mhæymənā from (act. pt.) mhæymen = “believing” OR (pass. pt.) mhæymæn = “being trusted” — bær bæytā = “member of a household; slave, servant” — sæybārtā N §23E, CAL, LS: sæybærtā NY, Jess.

Τίς ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ πιστὸς δοῦλος καὶ φρόνιμος, ὃν κατέστησεν ὁ κύριος αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τῆς θεραπείας αὐτοῦ τοῦ διδόναι αὐτοῖς τὴν τροφὴν ἐν καιρῷ;δοῦλος = “born bondman or slave” (opp. one made a slave) — φρόνιμος = “in one’s right mind; sensible, prudent” — θερᾰπείᾱ = “service, attendance; (in collective sense) body of attendants”: other versions have οἰκετείᾱς = “household of slaves; slave population” — τοῦ διδόναι = neuter singular article + (pres.) inf. (genitive of purpose): others have aor. 2 inf. δοῦναι [aor. 1 of δίδωμι is used only in ind. (ἔδωκα, etc.); aor. 2 is used in pl. ind. and moods. (e.g. ἔδομεν = “we gave”)]

2018-08-09

Daniel (P) 5:12⁎

ʾuḥd(ə)ṯā, also ʾuḥæḏ(ə)ṯā = “riddle” N §103 — ʾḥd = “to hold, take; to undertake; to pose (a riddle)”: ܘܐܸܡܲܪ ܠܗܘܿܢ ܫܸܡܫܘܿܢ: ܐܵܚܹܕ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ ܠܟ݂ܘܢ ܐܘܼܚܲܕܬ݂ܵܐ (P Ju14:12), ܒܲܪ ܐ݇ܢܵܫܵܐ: ܐܲܚܘܿܕ ܐܘܼܚܲܕܬ݂ܵܐ (Ezk17:2) — in BA, it says “to show (explain) riddles” [Daniel is the solver], while in P it says “to pose riddles” [he is the asker].

šry G = “to loosen, untie; to open”: “to interpret, solve” — qeṭrā = “knot; difficult problem” — šmy D

mekkḕl = “therefore; so then”

ܡܸܛܠ ܕܪܘܼܚܵܐ ܘܡܲܕܥܵܐ ܘܣܘܼܟܵܠܵܐ ܝܲܬ݁ܝܼܪܵܐ ܐܸܫܬ݁ܟܲܚ ܒܹܗ:
ܦܵܫܲܪ ܚܸܠܡ̈ܝܼܢ: ܘܐܵܚܹܕ ܐܘܼ̈ܚܕܵܢ: ܘܫܵܪܹܐ ܩܸܛܪ̈ܝܼܢ:
ܕܵܢܝܼܐܹܝܠ ܕܡܲܠܟܵܐ ܫܲܡܝܼ ܫܡܹܗ ܒܸܠܛܫܵܨܲܪ:
“Because [such] a spirit and intelligence and extraordinary understanding were (lit. was) found in him, interpreting {pšr} dreams and posing riddles and solving difficult problems. Dānīʾèl, whom the king named [as] his name {“gave him a new name” or possibly “named him after his own name”} Belṭšāṣær… [is such a person.]”
ܡܸܟܹ݁ܝܠ ܕܵܢܝܼܐܹܝܠ ܢܸܬܼܩܪܹܐ: ܘܲܦܫܵܪܵܐ ܢܚܵܘܸܐ.
“Therefore Dānīʾèl should be called, and he should show the interpretation.”

In ES ܢܚܵܘܹܐ (used in Dan2:15) is not uncommonly written ܢܚܵܘܸܐ (more info).

2018-08-10

ܠܐ ܐܳܚܹܕ ܘܰܡܩܝܡ ܠܗ = “Does he not take hold of it and lift it up?” (Mt12:11)

ܗܹܪܘܕܸܣ ܐܸܚܰܕ ܗ̱ܘܐ ܠܝܘܚܰܢܳܢ = “Hèródes had arrested Yóḥænnās.” (Mt14:3)

2018-08-11

Daniel (BA) 5:12⁎

ʾa-ḥɐ̊wā-yaṯ = const. of (h)a-ḥɐ̊wā-yā, C inf. of ḥawwī “to show”: wa- in front of ʾa- seems unusual (never occurs in Syriac). The MT vocalization clearly shows that it can’t be waḥ(ə)wāyā à la Syriac. However, it could have been simply w-ʔa- (instead of wa-ʔa-), if keeping the consonant ʔ was that important.

ʾaḥīḏān fem. pl. = Syc ʾuḥdān (ʾuḥdəṯā)

mišārē = *mišarrē D pt.

The verb “was found” is feminine, possibly because śɔḵləṯānū is feminine, the six words following it being parenthetic. Also, it might be that what was found in him was seen as one abstract fact. Some read mišrē (G inf.) instead of mišārē, and as another possibility, this infinitive could be treated as feminine too. Either way, it feels a little awkward that the seemingly parenthetic six words (verb + object, 3 times) are mixture of participle(s) and infinitive(s), unlike the Syriac version (where participle + object is repeated 3 times for this part).

כָּל־קֳבֵ֡ל
דִּ֣י ר֣וּחַ ׀ יַתִּירָ֡ה
וּמַנְדַּ֡ע
וְשָׂכְלְתָנ֡וּ
מְפַשַּׁ֣ר חֶלְמִין֩ וַֽאַֽחֲוָיַ֨ת אֲחִידָ֜ן
וּמְשָׁרֵ֣א קִטְרִ֗ין
“Because an extraordinary spirit and intelligence and understanding — interpreting dreams and to explain riddles, and solving difficult problems —
הִשְׁתְּכַ֤חַת בֵּהּ֙
בְּדָ֣נִיֵּ֔אל
were (lit. was) found in him — in Dānīyēl,
דִּֽי־מַלְכָּ֥א שָׂם־שְׁמֵ֖הּ
בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּ֑ר
whom the king assigned his name: Bēlṭəšaṣṣar.”

2018-08-12

śwm (=Syc sām) “to put, to set” is used, while in P it is šmy “to name”

ܘܣܳܡ ܐܝܕܗ ܥܠܝܗܘܢ܂ ܘܐ̣ܙܠ ܡܢ ܬܰܡܳܢ܀ (Mt19:15⁎)

ܬܐ ܣܝܡ ܐܝܕܟ ܥܠܝܗ̇܂ ܘܬܸܚܹܐ. (Mt9:18)

ܘܫܰܡܝ ܠܫܸܡܥܘܢ ܫܡܐ܂ ܟܐܦܐ. (Mt3:16⁎)

This רְבִ֗יעַ section is divided into six, by פָּזֵ֡ר (four of them) and one גֶּ֜רֶשׁ (or גֵּ֜רֵשׁ) aka אַזְלָ֜א — or into seven, if we count מוּנַח לְגַרְמֵ֣הּ ׀. Meaning-wise, this Mūnaḥ Ləḡarmēh is weakly sub-dividing the second sub-phrase, דִּ֣י ר֣וּחַ ׀ יַתִּירָ֡ה = “(because of the fact) that a spirit | [which was] extraordinary, (and so on were found in him).”

The word רְבִ֗יעַ seems to have been from רְבִיעִ֫י that is ܪܒ̥ܝܥܳܝܐ.

Ethiopic (2018)

On 2018-05-31, after checking Aramaic ʾāʕā (PS *ʕiṣ́, Geʿez ʕĕṣ́) in Dn5:4, I got interested in this and started learning the Ethiopic alphabet again, this time rather seriously. See also: Ethiopic (2013, 2015); Amharic (2014); South Semitic (2013)

2018-06-01

Mnemonic: the first half (13) of the 26

ሀለ ሐመ ሠረ
Holy ḥam, sure!
ሰቀ በተ ኀነ አ
Suq bought Khan, uh-oh!

2018-06-02

Mnemonic: the second half (13) of the 26

ከወ ዐ ዘየ
Cow-eye(d) Zoey,
ደገ ጠጰ ጸፀ ፈፐ
Dog, ṭop̣, ṣaḍ, phew (oo)ps!

Example Words

ለ፤ል በ፤ብ ፥ ልብ
ܠܸܒ̊ܐ — (L) + “sheva” as a left circle; (B) + “sheva” as a left tick

2018-06-03

ለ፤ሌ ለ፤ሊ ተ፤ት ፥ ሌሊት
ܠܹܠܝܐ — (L) + “ē” as a left bottom ring [possibly an adscripted ]; (L) + “kasra” as a left bottom line; (T) + “sheva” as a top tick

With WashRa, typing cost is number_of_letters x 2. For the above two examples, the required strokes will be “L E, B E” and “L Y, L I, T E” respectively, simple and clean. With IME, you may have to type more keys. While you can still type ləb in 4 strokes (L SPACE, B SPACE), lelit costs 6 strokes (L I E, L I SPACE, T SPACE).

ሐ፤ሓ ለ፤ሊ በ፤ብ ፥ ሓሊብ
ܚܠܒ̥ܐ — (Ḥ) + extended right for “ā” [possibly a “dagger ʾalif” subscripted] — cost = WashRa 6 vs. IME 8 (H . A, L I SPACE, B SPACE)
መ፤ማ የ፤ይ ፥ ማይ
ܡܝ̈ܐ — (M) + “dagger ʾalif”; (Y) + “shva” as the extended, curled-up tail, with a left bottom tick [the whole thing looks like “ȩ”] — cost = 4 vs. 4 (tied)
መ፤ም ሰ፤ሴ ተ፤ት ፥ ምሴት
ܪܡܫܐ — (M) + “shva” as center-to-left leg; (S) + “ē” adscripted [məsēt] — Note: Like in Arabic, PS *š & *s3 are both /s/ in Geʿez, while PS *ś is (/ɬ/ ?), that is ش. is a newer later used in Amharic, Tigrinya, Tigré, etc. — Cost: 4 vs. 5
ሠ ለ ሰ፤ስ ተ፤ቱ ፥ ሠለስቱ
ܬܠܬܐ — (Ś); (L); (S) + “shva” as oblique tick; (T) + “ḍamma” as lower right tick [śalasˈtū] — cf. Mercer: Ethiopic Gr. §105 — PS *śalāṯ- (Central Semitic: based on *ṯalāṯ): PS *ṯ becomes s in Ethiosemitic (but not in OSA). — Cost: 8 vs. 10
ሠ ለ፤ላ ሰ፤ስ ፥ ሠላስ
ܬܠܬ — extended right leg for “ā” [śalās] — Cost: 6 vs. 7

Confusing guys: ለሰስ — Lä looks like λ, with the head part slanted. The tick of Sä is not slanted, facing directly above. Sə is like Lä, but the head part and the right leg are connected less smoothly, somewhat zigzagging. Also, while Lä is roughly V-shaped, Sä/Sə is U-shaped.

2018-06-14 [Added to Wikt @ 2018-06-13] ሠላሳ (śălāsā) = ܬܠܬܝܢ

2018-06-04

ሠ ለ፤ል ሰ፤ስ ፥ ሠልስ
ܬܠܝܬܝܐ — two consecutive consonants are possible only word finally (Mercer §12 c, §13 7b) [śals].
ረ፤ር አ፤እ ሰ፤ስ ፥ ርእስ
ܪܝܫܐ — (R) (rə) has a special form [also (F) ፈ፤ፍ]; (A) + zigzag “shva” — PS *š > s in Ethiosemitic, Arabic, and Old South Arabic. [rəʔs ?]
ሰ መ፤ማ ነ፤ኒ ፥ ሰማኒ
ܬܡܢܹܐ — (N) + adscripted “kasra” (this pattern works for almost all III. characters) — the 10th example word

2018-06-05

ሰ መ፤ማ ነ፤ን ተ፤ቱ ፥ ሰማንቱ
ܬܡܢܝܐ — (M) + “dagger alef”; (N) + “shva” as a curved head; (T) + mid-right “ḍamma” (ū is commonly shown this way, except the place may be lower-than-mid) [säˈmāntū ?] — Cost: 8 vs. 9 [T U SPACE for tū]
ሰ መ፤ማ የ፣ይ ፥ ሰማይ
ܫܡܝܐ — Cost: 6 vs. 6 (tied)
ሰ በ፤ብ ዐ ተ፤ቱ ፥ ሰብዐቱ
ܫܒܥܐ — (B) + “shva” as left mid-tick (rare) [säbˈʕätū ?] — Cost: 8 vs. 10 or 11 (“eee” or “aaa SPACE”, “tu SPACE”)
ሰ በ፤ብ ዐ፤ዑ ፥ ሰብዑ
ܫܒܥ — (ʕ) + “ḍamma” (right mid tick) [ˈsäbʕū ?] — Cost: 6 vs. 6 or 7 (“uu” or “eeu”)
ሰ፤ስ መ፤ም ፥ ስም
ܫܡܐ − (S) + “shva” as the slanted top part; (M) + “shva” as a broken leg [səm] — Cost: 4 vs. 4 (tied)
ሰ፤ስ ሰ፤ሱ ፥ ስሱ
ܫܬ — (S) + “shva”; (S) + “ḍamma” [səsū] — Cost: 4 vs. 5 (s u SAPCE)
ሰ፤ስ ነ፤ን ነ፤ን ፥ ስንን
ܫܸܢܐ = “tooth” — (S) + “shva”; (N) + curved-head “shva”; (N) + “shva” [sənn, sənən ??] — Cost: 6 vs. 6 (tied)
ሰ፤ስ ደ፤ድ ሰ፤ስ ተ፤ቱ ፥ ስድስቱ
ܫܬܐ — (D) + “shva” as a higher right tick; this is not a “ḍamma” which is mid or lower right [sədsətū ?] — Cost: 6 vs. 7 (t u SPACE) — the 18th example words, 33 to go

2018-06-06

ሰ፤ሶ ረ፤ር ፥ ሶር
ܬܘܪܐ — (S) + “ō” as the extended left leg; (Rə) special form [sōr] — Cost: 4 vs. 4 (tied)
ቀ ደ፤ዳ መ፤ሚ ፥ ቀዳሚ
ܩܕܡܝܐ — (Q); (D), a simplified, ℓ-like form, with a lower right “dagger ʾalif”; (M) + “kasra” attached to an added right leg [qäˈdāmī Mer 70] — Cost: 6 vs. 7 (m i SPACE)
ቀ፤ቅ ደ፤ዱ ሰ፤ስ ፥ ቅዱስ
ܩܕܝܫܐ — (Q) + top “shva”; (D), simplified form + ḍamma, attached to the right leg; (S) + top “shva” [qəddūs ?] — Cost: 6 vs. 7

2009 Scan (Jpeg)
2018 Scan
ቀደሰ (qäddäsä) = I. (Root), 2. (Intensive) i.e. our qæddeš D: qədūs (qəddūs ?) is part. and adj. (cf. Mercer 68–69), should be our qæddīš

https://archive.org/details/lexiconlinguaeae00dilluoft   2009
https://archive.org/details/lexiconlinguaeae00dill_0     2018
The 2018 scan is not very good either, but at least it’s not blurred.
The sample image above was saved as a 4-color PNG.
Unlike in the 2009 scan, the dagesh dot and
the Syriac vowel sign for “e” are clearly visible.

2018-06-07

ቀ፤ቆ ቆበረ (?)
(Q) + “o”-ring — “to become dark” (?) [probably bad spelling on en.wiktionary.org] — LLA436 only has ቀበረ = “to bery” = ܩܒܰܪ, which seems valid
ቀ፤ቆ በ፤ባ ረ፤ር ፥ ቆባር
(Q) o-ring; (B) dagger; (R) special: qōbār = “fog, darkness” [*qōbārä on en.wiktionary.org, probably wrong again; that reminds me: en.wiktionary.org spells ሠላስ weirdly in one place, where is used instead of ; which is really strange, given that the letter is not even used in Geʿez]
በ፤ቤ ተ፤ት ፥ ቤት
ܒܝܬܐ — (B), adscripted; (T), top tick: bēt — 27 to go
ተ, ሰስ, ዐ, ተቱ ፥ ተስዐቱ
ܬܫܥܐ — (T), ḍamma: tăsʕătū
ተት, ሰስ, ዐዑ ፥ ትስዑ
ܬܫܥ — (ʕ), ḍamma: tĕsʕū
ኀ, መም, ሰስ ፥ ኀምስ
ܚܰܡܶܫ — (M), shva as broken-left-leg: ḫăms — PS *ḫ was kept by almost everyone, except Phoenician/Hebrew/Aramaic (and Amharic).
ኀ, መም, ሰስ, ተቱ ፥ ኀምስቱ
ܚܡܫܐ: ḫămsĕtū (?)

Geʿez ă vs. ā (aka. ä vs. a):

These additional letters are used:

In ti-ER, ሠኀፀ are unusued; they are there in ti-ET. (ref. Mnemonic Ethiopic Keyboards)

2018-06-08

ነን, ሰስ, ረ ፥ ንስረ
ܢܫܪܐ — (N), “shva” as a (basically horizontal) top hook; (S), slanted tick; (R): nĕsră
አ, ሐ, ተቲ ፥ አሐቲ
ܚܕܐ — (ʔ); (Ḥ); (T), kasra: ʔăḥăˈtī (Merc 69)
አ, ሐ, ደዳዱ ፥ አሐዱ
ܚܕ — (ʔ); (Ḥ); (D), ḍamma attached to (Dā) form: ʔăḥădū

2018-06-09

አ, ረር, በባ, ዐዕ ፥ አርባዕ
ܐܪܒܥ — “shva” as straight top tick (this occurs in ዕፅ)
አርባዕቱ
ܐܪܒܥܐ
አቡነ
ܐܒܘܢ — Dillman 357 (pretty much like in Syriac)
አብ
ܐܒܐ — the left middle tick as “shva” occurs only in ; a top tick would make it the wrong letters, ሰስ (să/sĕ), while a right tick makes it (bū).

2018-06-10

አባ
voc. of አብ; honorific title (LLA755) [en.wiktionary.org has *ʔāb instead; another mistake?]
አእ, ዘዝ, ነን ፥ እዝን
ܐܕܢܐ — (A), zigzag shva (also occurs in ህክፕ); (Z), curvy shva (only ን, ዝ); (N), curvy shva: ʔĕzn — PS *ḏ is kept in Arabic, changed to d in Aramaic (and Ugaritic?), otherwise changed to z.
እድ
ܐܝܕܐ — (D), right-tick shva (ውድጵጽ)

IME is inconvenient when you want to type አ. One can type it by hitting [A] then [Shift]+[2].

አእ, ገግ, ዘዚ, አ, በብ, ሐሔ, ረር ፥ እግዚአብሔር
(A), zigzag shva; (G), ring shva (ልግ); (Z), kasra; (A); (B) left-tick shva ( only); (Ḥ), ring adscripted; (R), special shva: ʔĕgzīʔă-bĕḥēr
እግዚእ = ⟦dominātor; in speciē de Deō et Christō (quamquam de Deō እግዚአብሔር magis ūsitūtum est)⟧ LLA1191
The construct state follows the form of the accusative, where -ĕ may become -ă (Merc63); ʔĕgzīĕ, ʔĕgzīă
ብሔር = ⟦regiō, terra⟧ LLA492

2018-06-11

The ring of sometimes doesn’t show good with Abyssinica SIL v1.500, when the font size is 26–30px inclusive, especially 29px/27px. For this reason, I tried some other fonts, including Ethiopic WashRa Bold (which has a similar, though not-so-obvious, problem for 28px/30px), and have changed CSS settings. Now Geʿez words in dt.sy3 are 32px instead of 29px, and modern languages (am/ti/tig) are shown with Nyala instead of SIL. I assumed Nyala was ugly since it’s a Microsoft font, but actually it is unexpectedly elegant.

Px 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
Abys. SIL
GF Zemen
Ethiopia Jiret
Ethiopic WashRa
Nyala
ከልብ
ܟܠܒܐ — (K); (L), ring shva; (B), left-tick shva (ልግ): kălb
ክልኤ
kĕlʔē = “two” LLA820, wikt has *kālʔĕ as “second” [perh. another mistake] — Tigre does have ካሊ [kɐːlɨ] “le second” (Vocabulaire de la langue tigré 48)

2018-06-14

ከካ, ዐዕ, በብ ፥ ካዕብ
kāʕ(ĕ)b = “other” LLA866 [wikt “second”]: (ʕ) top tick shva (ዕፅ): (B) left tick shva ( only)
ከክ, ለል, አኤ, ተቱ ፥ ክልኤቱ
kĕlʔētū = “two”: zigzag shva (ህእክፕ)
ክልኤቲ
kĕlʔētī = “two” (fem.) — 7 to go

2018-06-15

ዐ, ሠ, ረር, ተቱ ፥ ዐሠርቱ
ܥܣܪܐ — ʕă-śăr-tū
ዐ, ሠሥ, ረሩ ፥ ዐሥሩ
ܥܣܪ — ʕăś-rū — a slant left leg as shva (ምሥ) — a vertical line as ḍamma (ሩፉ)
ዕፅ
“tree” LLA1025 — ʕĕṣ́ (PS *ʕiṣ́) — gez ṣ́ (or ḍ) might have been [ɬʼ].

2018-06-16

ዝእብ
zĕʔb (zĕʔĕb?) ܕܐܒܐ but it means “hyena” in Geʿez (LLA1056)
ደም
dăm ܕܡܐ
ደዳ, ገግ, መም ፥ ዳግም
dāgm = “second”: (G) ring shva (ልግ)
ግዕዝ
gĕʕz (gĕʕĕz?) LLA1188

2018-06-18

#1–#5 (30 non-base letters)

The leg of (śĕ) is left-sided, while the legs of ሦምሞ (śō/mĕ/mō) are in the middle. The other characters up to this point are relatively easy (followed by confusing r-series).

ዐሥሩ “ten (fem. indeclinable)” and ዕሥር “ten (fem. declinable)”: Dillmann §158, Merc70

ሦስት “three” [soost.ogg] = ܬܠܬܐ in Amharic

ስም “name” [sem.ogg] showing that Amharic ĕ (ə) /ɨ/ is a bit higher than [ɨ], near [ɘ]

ሳመ “to kiss” [saama.ogg] Amharic ă (ä) /ə/ is near [ɜ] while ā (a) /a/ is [ä].

These sound clips are based on amh_word-list_1987_02.wav from Amharic, the UCLA Phonetics Lab Language Archive (cc-by-nc-2.0).

ሸሞንተ (šämmontä) = ܬܡܢܐ in Tigrinya

Also, it is interesting to observe that both Syriac (at least ES) and Geʿez have similar sets of seven vowels:

  1. (hă) vs. ܗܰ (hæ) — first A, short
  2. (hū) vs. ܗܽܘ (hū) — U
  3. (hī) vs. ܗܺܝ (hī) — I
  4. (hā) vs. ܗܳ (hā) — second A, possibly long
  5. (hē) vs. ܗܹ (hè) — first E, wider, possibly long
  6. (hĕ) vs. ܗܸ (he) — second E, narrower, short
  7. (hō) vs. ܗܘܿ (hō) — O

2018-06-19

#6–#10 (30 non-base letters)

For the sake of argument, I’m going to call the middle-horizontal stroke seen in ሉ ሑ etc. (as attached to ለ ሐ) Ethiopic ḍamma. Also, by Ethiopic kasra I mean the low-horizontal stroke seen in ሊ ሒ etc.

A few base letters, like ረ ደ ፈ, natively have a horizontal element that looks like an Ethiopic kasra, and such a base letter tends to take a horizontal line below in order to show the vowel ū. Notice that thanks to the added horizontal line, the “native kasra” will look like an Ethiopic ḍamma: ሩ ዱ ፉ. So anyway, that’s how (rū) looks like.

Now, when this kind of base letter wants to take its own kasra, it could have double-kasra (since it has a sort of kasra natively); in reality, this double-kasra will be kind of “folded” as a curled-up line (ሪ ፊ), except (dī) will get a real Ethiopic kasra.

The ā-form of such a base letter could be confusing, but as for , its ā-form (rā) looks like a half-circle version of (rē), that is, only the upper half of the small circle (showing ē) is attached to it. The other letters up to #10 (t-series) are relatively easy.

ተማሪ = (Amharic) “student”
🔊 /tɜmari/ [From amh_word-list_1967_01, cc-by-nc-2.0, by The UCLA Phonetics Lab Archive]

ራስ = (Amharic) “head” ܪܝܫܐ

memo
http://www.educationalfontware.com/open_font_license.html
Geez Handwriting fonts - VERY cool!

http://www.semiticroots.net/index.php?r=site/downloads
OLD SOUTH ARABIAN Unicode fonts
font names = “Qataban” and “Sabaic”

2018-06-20


written from the top circle; simplified (kind of shorthand)

#11–#12 (10 non-base letters)

(ḫā) shows ā like ቃ ታ do, while (nā) is unusual, where ā is shown as a top, right, horizontal stroke. (nĕ) shows ĕ like ሕ ቅ ት do, while (ḫĕ) is unusual, where ĕ is shown as a curved (“broken”) stroke instead of the straight stroke in its base form (and in the other non-base forms). As for the remaining 10 letters (2 base + 8 non-base), the ḫ-series and n-series are very similar and relatively easy to remember.

and are confusable.

እኅው (ʔĕḫwĕ) = “brother” ܐܚܐ LLA765

አኀው (ʔăḫăw [ʔăḫăwĕ ?]) = “brothers”

እኅት (ʔĕḫt) = “sister” ܚܬܐ LLA766

አኃት (ʔăḫāt) = “sisters”

አንተ /antɜ/ = Amharic “you (m.)” [In Amharic, አ = ኣ See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA/Amharic]

እናንተ /ɨnnantɜ/ = Amharic “you guys”

2018-06-26 Both nā and nə are: base form + top horizontal stroke, which goes to the left in nə (just like ሕ ቅ እ), and to the right in nā (the opposite direction).

2018-06-21

1967_01 Entries #1–10

(Try amh_word-list_1986_01 instead, as 1967_01 is not by a native speaker of Amharic.)

2018-06-22

1986_01

This is a very userful sample set, even though its IPA transcription is often incorrect. Among other things, this author (a student?) often thinks that the 1st and 4th orders ([ɜ] and [ɐ̞]) are the same, and their teacher (?), while commenting on a few other things, does not fix those mistakes either. Nevertheless, both from the audio recording and from the Amharic spellings given, the actual phonemes are usually very clear.

2018-06-27

#13–#15

(ʔə) has a top, left, horizontal stroke, just like ሕቅትን.

(kə) looks funny.

(wu) has a (near-)low, right, horizontal stroke, and one might think it’s wi. Also, it is confusable with (wə). The real wi is .

The Amharic word ውሻ (wɨʃa) = “dog” [am.wiki / Basic Am Dic 213a / La clé 88] is sometimes written ዉሻ (wuʃa). It is said that /ɨ/ is realized as [ʊ] after /w/ [IPA, p. 47], hence the alternative spelling is more or less justifiable.

2018-06-29

(wo) is conceptually like (śo) and (mo), each of them having a left-slanted leg for “o”. However, visually, the leg of (wo) looks like the leg of (mə), rather confusing! Note that wə is .

እርስዎ (ɨrswo) = Amharic “you (sg. polite)”

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